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犹太人的“四书” The “Four Books” of the Jews

by Aaron Wood

March 15, 2010 | 3:51 pm

  犹太经典之中最出名的是圣经。

  圣经是部文集,其中第一部分叫Torah(托辣,意思是“教导、训诲”),这部分用一个汉字翻译,我选择“典”——帝之书。按犹太传统,托辣乃帝(上帝)亲授。用“典”,还可以表达Torah所含“典章律例”。

  第二部分叫做Neviim(意思是“众谕者”),这部分用一个汉字翻译,我选择“经”——圣人之书。承天命者(被上帝选中之人)劝谕百姓。

  第三部分叫做Ketuvim(意思是“多[卷]书”),这部分用一个汉字翻译,我选择“纪”——各种其他类型(典经之外)的纪录,或者“集”——其他圣人时期的文献的集合。

  这“典、经、纪”在一起,即犹太人的圣经,希伯来语是TaNaKh(塔纳赫)——Torah, Neviim, Ketuvim的首字母缩写(T-N-K)

  圣经之外,最重要的,也是使犹太人保持其犹太特性的不可或缺的经典,是Talmud(有“学习”之意),这部包罗万象的巨著用一个汉字翻译,我选择“传”——诠释“经”(圣经)之书。

  “典、经、纪、传”,此犹太“四书”。


Aaron Wood
2006-08
2010-03-15

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR

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Aaron Wood, raised 100% secular, had no knowledge of Jewishness until he met a Christian missionary in China. Since then, Wood had spent tons of time studying scriptures and...

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