Jewish Journal


Holocaust remembrance in the age of genocide

by Menachem Z. RosenSaft

Posted on Apr. 26, 2011 at 5:47 pm

We have no way of knowing whether God spoke to the dead of the concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen in Germany during the winter and early spring of 1945, but I am fairly certain that He did not speak to either the living or those who were dying. What could He possibly have said to them? What words of comfort could He have given them in a place that one of the camp’s liberators compared to Dante’s inferno?

On April 17 I was at Bergen-Belsen, on the 66th anniversary of its liberation. Standing in the midst of mass graves, I realized that I am alive today because in early April of 1945, an SS officer named Kurt Becher persuaded the commandant of Bergen-Belsen to surrender the camp to the British.

By then, Bergen-Belsen, which was built to hold, at most, 8,000 inmates, was overcrowded with over 40,000 starved, emaciated inmates, the overwhelming majority of them Jews, who were suffering from typhus, tuberculosis, dysentery and a host of other virulent diseases, alongside some 10,000 unburied corpses in varying stages of decay. My mother, a not yet 33-year-old Jewish dentist from Poland who had arrived there from Auschwitz-Birkenau five months earlier, was among them. My father and 15,000 additional inmates were imprisoned in the nearby barracks of a German army base.

I doubt whether my parents and most of the other inmates of Bergen-Belsen would have survived if the British had not freed them when they did. As it is, the British soldiers who entered the camp on April 15, 1945, were confronted with a medical and humanitarian challenge of unprecedented proportions.

Shortly after the liberation, Brigadier H.L. Glyn Hughes, the deputy director of medical services of the British Army of the Rhine, appointed my mother to organize and head a group of doctors and nurses among the survivors to help care for the camp’s thousands upon thousands of critically ill inmates. For weeks on end, my mother and her team of 28 doctors and 620 other female and male volunteers, only a few of whom were trained nurses, worked round the clock alongside the military doctors under the command of Lt. Col. James Johnston to try to save as many of the survivors as possible. Despite their desperate efforts, the Holocaust claimed 13,944 additional victims during the two months following the liberation, and those who lived had to face a grim reality. “For the great part of the liberated Jews of Bergen-Belsen,” my mother later recalled, “there was no ecstasy, no joy at our liberation. We had lost our families, our homes. We had no place to go, nobody to hug, nobody who was waiting for us, anywhere. We had been liberated from death and from the fear of death, but we were not free from the fear of life.”

Tragically, the atrocities that were committed at Bergen-Belsen were by no means the last.

The Genocide Convention, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on Dec. 9, 1948, was meant to put an end to systematic mass killings as a means of promoting megalomaniacal aspirations of ethnic or religious supremacy. Instead, the past half-century has seen devastating new genocides in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, Darfur and elsewhere. And Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who repeatedly and unabashedly threatens the citizens of Israel with genocidal destruction, has yet to be declared a criminal under either the Genocide Convention or the standards applied by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg more than 65 years ago.

A young woman named Adisada Dudic was a student of mine this past fall in a seminar on World War II war crimes trials at Cornell Law School. She is also a survivor of the genocidal atrocities perpetrated against Bosnian Muslims by Serbian forces in the 1990s.

As a child, she spent three years in refugee camps with her mother and sisters. A “hurtful reality,” Adisada wrote, “reminds me that my home country is destroyed, my family members are scattered all over the world, thousands of Bosnian women and girls were raped and ravaged, thousands of Bosnian men and boys were tortured in concentration camps and buried in mass graves, and so many of my people were slaughtered by an enemy hand that was out to get every single person that self-identified as a Bosnian Muslim. … I am infuriated that we continue to have gross violations of human rights all over the world while we continue to find excuses for why we cannot interfere in other countries’ affairs.”

Holocaust remembrance cannot be allowed to devolve into an intellectual or spiritual abstraction. If we are to honor the memory of the victims of Bergen-Belsen, Auschwitz and all the other sites where Hitler’s “Final Solution of the Jewish Question” was implemented, the eradication of the scourge of genocide must be a priority for all of us, individually and collectively, as members of a supposedly civilized international community.

In accepting the Nobel Peace Prize, Elie Wiesel explained that he “swore never to be silent whenever and wherever human beings endure suffering and humiliation. … When human lives are endangered, when human dignity is in jeopardy, national borders and sensitivities become irrelevant. Wherever men or women are persecuted because of their race, religion, or political views, that place must — at that moment — become the center of the universe.” How can the rest of us do otherwise?

Menachem Z. Rosensaft is adjunct professor of law at Cornell Law School, distinguished visiting lecturer at Syracuse University College of Law, and vice president of the American Gathering of Jewish Holocaust Survivors and Their Descendants.

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Nice that Rosensaft gives the British some credit, at the point the British had their noses rubbed in it. Nobody saved the Jews; nobody. The Allies knew every detail of the Holocaust by Sept 42. Britain refused to demand Hitler release the Jews from the camps because he might have agreed; if Jews went to Palestine the Arabs would get upset and cut off the oil. Instead, Britain agreed in advance to participate in Nuremberg trials after the war. Israel was born alone, stands alone, dies alone and mourns alone.

The Genocide Convention also took place when the world had their noses rubbed in it. The last half century more than answers the question of ‘How could it have happened?’

Comment by Ben Plonie on 4/27/11 at 8:14 am

You said: “but I am fairly certain that He did not speak to either the living or those who were dying. What could He possibly have said to them?”

By definition, hearing God speak causes death: “Let not God speak with us, lest we die” Ex. 20:19. Also: “No man can see my face and live” Ex. 33.20.

I think that perhaps what you mean to say is this: God does/did not exist, otherwise, how could HE have let it happen?

You go on to say that “Holocaust remembrance cannot be allowed to devolve into an intellectual or spiritual abstraction.” ... I cannot fit remaining my comments here because of Jewish Journal’s word limit. Please see http://bit.ly/ihhNTx for the rest of the response.

Comment by Bob Schrier on 4/29/11 at 2:10 pm

No, Bob, that’s not what he meant to say. What he meant to say was that that period is obviously one of those alluded to at the end of Leviticus and near the end of Deuteronomy at which time God will turn away from us in a case of reciprocal neglect, and the natural inhumane instincts of our enemies will be unleashed upon us unchecked.

Comment by Ben Plonie on 4/29/11 at 3:37 pm

Thanks Ben, did you happen read the remainder of my commments? My statement is clarified further and makes more sense in the context of the entire essay.

I don’t think he is saying anything about the period mentioned in Deuteronomy though. The crux of my argument centers on the fact that he equates the Holocaust with other genocides at the end of the oped, which is problematic. Please see the link if you did not get a chance: http://bit.ly/ihhNTx

Comment by Bob Schrier on 4/29/11 at 3:47 pm

OK, I read them & I originally thought you were going somewhere else. btw it’s not God’s voice but absolute appearance that is incompatible with corporal life; the Israelites were wrong. (I hesitate to click on encrypted links which have become a source of computer invasion.) I agree the Holocaust is a unique phenomenon in quantity and quality, and attempts to make sense of it in terms of similar events really the issue. OTOH it was not a unique event in context of the Jewish slaughters and horrors emerging from history; WWI (0.25 million Jews), pogroms, massacres, Inquisition, Crusades et al. Just one damn thing after another. Nothing but the organization and technology changed.

Comment by Ben Plonie on 4/29/11 at 4:58 pm

IMHO it was’nt as much the betrayal of culture and civilization as the cold-blooded response of the world that caused the near totally preventable Holocaust and make it seem like a force of nature to some. While official Germany has changed, Nazism under that name and others is very much alive even in Germany and around the world. I repeat, “The last half century more than answers the question of ‘How could it have happened?’” Rosensaft’s points were more than adequately made 65 years ago. Fighting genocide is like fighting poverty and fighting terrorism. These things are not forces of nature; they are individual and collective decisions made by irresponsible and evil people.

Comment by Ben Plonie on 4/29/11 at 5:01 pm

I’d be curious to hear a source for the idea that “the Israelites were wrong”; I don’t think Midrashic/Talmudic sources support it. Also, see Aryeh Kaplan’s Meditation and the Bible where he discusses interfacing with God and how it can cause death when one is not spiritually equipped for it.

In any case, that was an aside to take issue with the author’s implied cynicism. The more salient issue is his argument that discussions regarding the Holocaust should not devolve into intellectualized or spiritualized vagaries. But I argued that that was precisely what he did by bringing God up at the beginning of the article. I was pointing out a perceived hypocrisy in the argument.

Comment by Bob Schrier on 5/01/11 at 6:41 pm

To your second comment:

I wholeheartedly disagree with the idea that the Holocaust should be understood in the context of other similar events. Jewish historical occurances need to be understood within the context of our own unique struggles to stay alive and keep the Torah. When we divorce ourselves from Torah, which is our lifeblood, we deprive ourselves of the ability to understand our history clearly. How could it have happened is not the question most people ask. How God could have let it happen is the question, and I don’t see how it’s possible to attempt an inquiry without attending to Torah sources.

Comment by Bob Schrier on 5/01/11 at 6:41 pm

You are right to disagree with my comment as I disagree with it myself. It was a cut-and-paste error or typo in which I left out a word and intended to validate your response, as follows; “attempts to make sense of it in terms of similar (unrelated) events really obscure the issue.” And I then proceeded with “On the other hand (OTOH)” in which having distinguished the Jewish Holocaust from others, I connect it to other Jewish disasters. In short, it was personal, not an instance of man’s inhumanity to man etc. which was green-lighted fairly quickly after the war. Try it now in context. I think we are now saying the same thing.

Comment by Ben Plonie on 5/02/11 at 10:02 am

I think that the reference to God in this context is just an example of name-dropping, to lend the piece a bit of philosophical gravitas, on the order of printing ‘In God We Trust” on the currency. It is a typical case of trotting God out just to dismiss him before getting into the real point the author wants to make. The expression I use lately is ‘an excuse masquerading as a reason’ (R. Motty Berger). That was the subject of my first post, which was commenting on the author allegedly owing his life to the German commandant, the British ‘liberators’ etc. rather than God. I attend an Orthodox schul pretty much founded by Holocaust survivors, so this can obviously go both ways.

Comment by Ben Plonie on 5/02/11 at 10:06 am

With regard to the Israelites being wrong, we can really get down in the weeds about it but it doesn’t change much as the author of the piece wouldn’t consider it authoritative anyway. The way things are, the concentration camps were not Sinai. But we can talk about it. There is evidence that they were wrong and no evidence that they were right.

Comment by Ben Plonie on 5/02/11 at 10:41 am

I don’t have a source except maybe something half remembered. Ex. 33:20 was a statement by God; I totally believe it, and it informs my theology. Ex. 20:19 was a statement by the people, and does not have the same credibility. Not saying they didn’t really think so, sure they were scared to death. But God spoke to many people, some prepared and some not, from Adam on down, and none died. More to the point, God did actually speak to the people, and they didn’t die. Granting Rabbi Kaplan, these were people who had just emerged from the splitting of the sea and witnessed the clouds, the destruction of the Egyptian power etc.

Comment by Ben Plonie on 5/02/11 at 10:42 am

The burning bush, God tells Moses to bring the people back to the mountain. Ex. 19:9 and 19:21 make the specific distinction between hearing and seeing. There is no hint before Ex. 20:15 that the people could not tolerate the experience, whether literally as all ten or traditionally as the first two. In Ex. 20:16 Moses is still reassuring, and Ex. 20:18 nails it down. Neither is there an indication that it was a test, or done to prove the point that it could not be done etc.

Arguably (Ex. 19:9 again) if the people had continued they might have been scared so straight they would have avoided the Golden Calf and the spies, and moved right on to the redemption.

Comment by Ben Plonie on 5/02/11 at 10:45 am

Thanks for clearing that up.

With regard to Israelites hearing God: please look in the Mekhilta. I don’t have the exact perek handy but I found an OU article that discusses it: “at Sinai, the People of Israel said “let Hashem not speak to us directly any more, lest we die. (Shemot 20:19)” And in the Midrashic account of the event, the People did in fact die and had to be revived by the Angels after the two Divine Utterances that they did hear themselves.” This is a famous Midrash and the one I was referring to. The people were not wrong, they actually did die. Full article here: http://www.ou.org/torah/frankel/haftarot/yitro60.htm

Comment by Bob Schrier on 5/02/11 at 12:00 pm