Until the late 1970s, very few Ethiopian Jews had ever wandered beyond the borders of their country and made it to Israel.
But in 1979, an insurgency in northern Ethiopia opened an exit route to Sudan, and thousands of Ethiopian Jews -- who called themselves Beta Israel but were known to outsiders as Falasha -- began fleeing the famine and war of northern Ethiopia on a journey they hoped would end in Jerusalem.
Along with thousands of other Ethiopians fleeing their country, which at the time was ruled by communist dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam, the Jews settled in refugee camps in Sudan and waited for Mossad operatives to take them out.
For the first few years, those who were taken to Israel left in one of three ways. Some were given forged documents and put onto planes in Khartoum bound for Athens. Once in Europe, they then were quietly put onto planes to Israel. Others were moved from their Sudanese refugee camps at night to Port Sudan, where Israeli naval commandos put them onto clandestine naval vessels and then transferred them onto ships headed for Israel. A few were airlifted directly to Israel from the Sudanese desert on illicit flights.
A famine in Ethiopia in 1984 lent great urgency to the effort to rescue Ethiopia's Jews, many of whom were dying of starvation and disease in refugee camps in Sudan while they waited to be taken to Israel.
In the covert maneuver Operation Moses, Israel began airlifting large numbers of Ethiopian Jews from Sudan's desert beginning in November 1984. Leaks about the operation and growing risks forced its early end in January 1985, after more than 8,000 Jews had been brought to Israel in the space of just six weeks.
Thousands more remained stranded in communist Ethiopia.
For those left behind, life was harsh. During Mengistu's 17-year reign, Ethiopian city streets were left riddled with corpses as a warning against opposing the government, bereaved parents were forced to pay for the bullets that killed their sons and suspected political opponents were imprisoned and tortured.
The Jews suffered no more than ordinary Ethiopians, but anyone who was suspected of trying to flee to Zion was tortured, imprisoned and often killed.
In the early 1990s, the tide turned in the war between the rebel Tigrean People's Liberation Front (TPLF) and the government, known as the Derg, and in May 1991 rebel forces surrounded the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa.
Israel, which had clandestine ties with Mengistu's regime, feared that the TPLF's anti-Zionist rhetoric and hostility toward Mengistu could lead to massacres of the Jews when the rebels took Addis, and quickly put together a plan to rescue the country's remaining Jews. Israel pressed the United States to persuade the rebels to hold their positions on the hilltops around Addis for 36 hours while Israel airlifted more than 14,000 Jews out of the country.
The fall of Addis came just hours after the completion of Operation Solomon, on May 24, 1991.
In the end, it turned out that Israel's fears were unfounded: The new regime in Addis Ababa proved itself friendly toward the Jews and forged strong ties with Israel.
After Operation Solomon, the only Ethiopians with Jewish ties left behind in Ethiopia were the Falash Mura -- Ethiopian Christians whose progenitors were Jews who had converted to Christianity. Many of them sought to return to Judaism in a bid to emigrate, but Israel's then-prime minister, Yitzhak Shamir, instructed his government not to accept them. Unlike those who had immigrated to Israel, Shamir noted, these Ethiopians were not identifiably Jewish and maintained Christian practices.
Israel's policy gradually changed, however, and since the early 1990s, tens of thousands of Falash Mura have moved to Israel -- nearly as many as the Ethiopian Jews who made aliyah during and before 1991.
During these last 15 years, Ethiopia's government has maintained a policy of open emigration, which is why no special operations have been necessary to bring the Falash Mura to Israel.
In the last decade and a half, led by rebel-turned-head-of-state Meles Zenawi, Ethiopia's government has accelerated the pace of the country's industrialization, improved its economy and so far prevented any repeats of the devastating 1984-85 famine that killed an estimated 1 million Ethiopians and struck hardest in Tigray.
And though the Ethiopian government remains a target of human rights advocates, including some in Israel, observers abroad say the Meles government's excesses do not approach the scope of that of Mengistu's Red Terror.
But since last May, when government forces shot to death dozens of people in Addis Ababa protesting disputed election results, there have been growing tensions between the Amhara elite who live in the center of the country, around the capital, and the Tigrean minority that runs the government.
There also has been increased international criticism of the Meles government, which had been a rare African darling of Western democracies.
Some American Jewish federation leaders visiting Ethiopia last week suggested that one reason for Israel to speed up the aliyah of the Falash Mura is political instability in the country. But recent political tensions notwithstanding, experts on Ethiopia say there is little danger of imminent collapse for the current regime.
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