Terrorism, a part of everyday life in Israel for decades, exploded in the face of a complacent America with the twin terror attacks that destroyed the World Trade Center in New York on Sept. 11 and left a gaping, charred hole in the Pentagon in Washington.
The bombings could have huge implications for Jewish groups and for a U.S.-Israel relationship that some may blame for provoking the terrorists.
Jewish groups, which have often unsuccessfully tried to warn policymakers that this nation could face the kinds of horrors that Israeli citizens live with on a daily basis, will play a major role in what is certain to be a fierce debate over terror preparedness and over the correct balance between basic civil liberties and measures to protect Americans from violence.
"This was a huge intelligence failure," said Shoshana Bryen, special projects director for the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA). "After past incidents, we've retreated into a 'fortress America' mentality. We won't be able to do that any more."
At press time, U.S. officials had still not identified likely perpetrators (several people were detained), but there was widespread speculation that the attack was related to the Middle East conflict, possibly through the notorious super-terrorist Osama bin Laden.
If that speculation becomes fact, it could have varied repercussions for U.S. relations with Israel and involvement in that part of the world, Jewish leaders say.
"There is a danger of people saying, 'if we didn't support Israel, those people would have no reason to dislike us,'" Bryen said. "We have to make the case that that's not true; they don't like us because of who we are. One thing Americans need to know is that the same people who hate Israel hate us and hate all democracies. If there was no Israel, they would still hate us."
Abraham Foxman, national director of the Anti-Defamation League, said that while some Americans will blame the strong U.S.-Israel relationship for the disaster, history suggests that the nation will reject that argument.
"The last time it happened was during the oil embargo in the 1970s," he said. "There were those who tried to blame America's friends and allies; it was a very anxious moment for Israel when the Arabs made it clear they were boycotting America because of its support for Israel."
But the nation's leaders held firm, he said. "The American government stood by its friend and ally, and said: nobody can tell us who our friends should be, nobody can blackmail us."
Making sure that message penetrates the anger and anxiety most Americans feel in the wake of the terror onslaught will be a top challenge for Jewish leaders in the difficult days ahead, Foxman and others say.
David Harris, executive director of the American Jewish Committee, said an even bigger challenge will be preparing the American people for "certain changes in our way of life in order to mount a sustained and credible defense against terrorism."
Harris, whose group has focused heavily on the fight against terror in recent years, said Israel has a lot to offer traumatized Americans about how to live under the terrorist threat -- "a debate our community has a huge stake in."
The first lesson from Israel, he said, "is that there is no substitute for solid intelligence -- human and other. And we have to understand this is a permanent war; it ebbs and flows, but it goes on, and it's dirty."
That is a lesson Israelis have learned the hard way over the decades -- as they have learned the need for an "unbreakable national will," Harris said. "One purpose of the terrorist is to break that will."
And the Israel experience teaches that the fight against terrorism demands changes to everyday life changes that will certainly be inconvenient and may run afoul of current civil rights protections.
"It means that checks at airports are serious, not cursory," Harris said. "It means that citizens must become aware of potential security threats and dangers. It requires a whole different level of awareness, which Israelis have and Americans need to copy. "
If the terror is revealed as Mideast related, it could have a number of implications for the current Israeli-Palestinian crisis.
Short-term, Jewish leaders say it will bring Israel and the United States closer together.
"It will bring home to people the reality of what Israel has been living with on a day to day basis at a very high price," Foxman said.
Other analysts say the attack could add to the options available to Israeli leader Ariel Sharon as he tries to subdue the yearlong surge of Palestinian terrorism.
"Let's just say that for a few days, at least, he has a lot more latitude to go after Palestinian terrorists," said a leading pro-Israel activist. "It's hard to imagine the State Department calling any Israeli action against terrorists 'provocative,' at least not while the taste of these bombings is in their mouths."
Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, perhaps fearing just that response, was quick to condemn the bombings. "We completely condemn this serious operation," he told reporters in Gaza. "We were completely shocked. It's unbelievable, unbelievable, unbelievable."
But Jewish leaders say a much more indelible statement was made by the Palestinians who celebrated the carnage with spontaneous street demonstrations in Nablus, East Jerusalem and in Lebanon.
Arab-American and Muslim groups also condemned the bombings, and urged Americans not to jump to conclusions about the perpetrators.
Rabbi Eric H. Yoffie, president of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, agreed.
"We urge all Americans not to form opinions until all facts are known, and to avoid blaming any group for the actions of individuals," he said.
But Jewish and Arab-American groups will quickly find themselves locked in bitter disagreements as lawmakers seek to toughen U.S. anti-terror laws -- which Muslim and Arab-American groups say are already damaging to fundamental civil rights.
The dramatic, rapid-fire developments produced a tidal wave of rumors and speculation in the capital. Media outlets broadcast reports of additional bombings that were later revealed untrue. There were persistent and incorrect reports of other hijacked airliners waiting to be directed at new targets -- one reason the congressional leadership was evacuated from the city.
The airliner that slammed into the Pentagon just as many workers were arriving produced an immense fireball, and an explosion that was heard at a reporter's office 12 miles from the huge building.
The Israeli embassy in Washington, D.C., and consulates around the country sent all but essential personnel home immediately after the news of the World Trade Center catastrophe broke. Then, after reports that additional attacks could be forthcoming and that the embassy might be a target, the Washington facility closed entirely.
By Tuesday afternoon -- with the Pentagon still burning -- the embassy was back in operation with what a spokesman described as a "skeleton" crew.
Israeli ambassador David Ivry expressed Israel's condolences to administration officials and offered the use of a team of Israeli specialists to help hunt for victims.
"Unfortunately, we have a lot of experience with buildings being destroyed," said an embassy spokesman.