If the pursuit of peace in the Middle East will not unite the parties concerned, then one life-sustaining element may. Israeli, Arab and American researchers and engineers have come together to find ways to produce more potable water for agricultural use, as demands for supplies of Middle Eastern and Californian freshwater continue to increase.
"Urban demands [for water] are increasing with the increase in population and standard of living," said Uri Shamir, head of the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology's Water Research Institute, a multidisciplinary research center that focuses on the science, technology, engineering and management of water. Fresh water that has been used for agriculture, said Shamir, must be shifted to the cities.
"If we want to maintain agriculture the way we have at the moment, we need water and more water," said Raphael Semiat, head of the Rabin Desalination Laboratory at the Technion, a laboratory funded by Los Angeles businessman Rob Davidow, who's a world leader in waste-water and sea-water desalination R & D.
With water resources limited throughout the Middle East, the Palestinian-Jordanian-Israeli Water Project has been launched to research new, safe, cost-efficient methods to irrigate crops. One of the more popular methods researched and employed by the project's committee, which is composed of scientists from the Technion, Ben-Gurion University, Jordan's Royal Scientific Society and the Palestinian A-Najjah University, is waste-water recycling, a method that purifies waste-water with minimal harm to the environment.
Soon, even this process will not suffice, and the more expensive sea-water desalination process will supplant it -- especially in California and Israel, where sea water is abundant.
"It's a solution that is not free of difficulties, but it is basically on your own territory, using an infinite source -- the ocean," said Shamir, who is currently conducting research in management of disputed international waters at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.
Sea-water desalination works in one of two ways: a thermal process, which evaporates and then condenses clean water vapor, and water membranes, which filter water through tiny pores about 0.1 micrometers small.
Researchers from the Rabin Desalination Laboratory have worked with I.D.E. Technologies (formerly Israel Desalination Engineering) of Ra'ananna, Israel and the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California who have joined with Parsons Corporation of Pasadena and Reynolds Metals Co., to design a state-of-the-art, generic desalination facility that could purify up to 80 million gallons a day using the thermal process. After two years of R & D, the design of the 540-foot tower is now complete, and the partners are looking for investors to implement the design and construct a plant. The most viable locations for the plant are along California's coast, since Israel's coast is more populated.
The Jordanians and Palestinians are less likely to employ sea-water desalination because they have little or no access to the sea. Nevertheless, efforts are still underway to conduct joint research on desalination with Palestinian and Jordanian scientists. The Joint Palestinian-Jordanian Water Project, however, needs more funds as well as a more peaceful political environment to resume this research with full force.
"We are trying to continue unhampered," said Shamir, who believes that cooperation for knowledge for society's benefit will eventually override any disharmony caused by nationalistic strife.
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