Posted by Klaudia Klimek
According to recent studies by the Public Opinion Research Center (CBOS) a third of Polish people hate Jews! But research from the same source clearly shows that animosity toward them has decreased. A study conducted in 1993 showed that Jews were the most disliked nation, indicated 51% of those polled. What is encouraging however is that sympathy toward them is steadily increasing, currently at 28%.
Of course this is only statistical data, but unfortunately it does reflect social attitudes in a significant way. I was perusing so-called „independent” websites - meaning those where writing drivel is allowed, while calling upon the good of the Fatherland - when I encountered a tekst by Stanisław Michalkiewicz. He writes, „A form of social organization higher than lineage is the tribe, that is a society which keeps the traditions of common ancestry. Many elements of this organization, tribal traits, are held by Jews – for example, their approach to matters of posession. The form higher than a tribe is nationality, or a society with a common language, customs, traditions and history – but one that is not politically organized, meaning it has not created a hierarchy.” For the layman, I will mention that according to Słownik Języka Polskiego (Polish Language Dictionary), tribalism is the remaining of past clan or tribe divisions and differences within national societies; also: a strong feeling of such separateness. Knowing the carefree writings of Mr. Michalkiewicz I did not feel offended in the least, because I have been reading his column for years and am used to these sorts of outbursts. Unfortunately, the essay was also broadcast on Radio Maryja, as an episode of the commentary series Thinking Fatherland (Myśląc Ojczyzna), which airs every Wednesday at 8.50 pm. I imagine the written word is often received by those more prone to reflection, whereas the „Voice from Toruń” (Radio Maryja) is heard in the houses of people with, let’s say, lower intellectual ceilings. When I realized this, I experienced an influx of associations...
On October 12th, 1939, Ilustrowany Kurier Codzienny (the Illustrated Daily Courier) announced, under a telling headline – The Jewish matter internationally – that, „Foremost the Jewish nation of Judeans does not hold its own prototype – it is merely a tribe. [...] founding its existence and development on crimes and all sorts of wickedness.” Adolf Hitler, the führer himself, wrote in his enduring „opus” titled Mein Kampf that, „An authentic Aryan was most likely a nomad, only later settling, after some time – which proves that he was never a Jew! No, the Jew is not a nomad, because even nomads had a defined attitude toward work. Work was the basis of their further development, as long as needed, before they acquired the necessary intellectual properties. But the nomads acquired the ability to create ideals, therefore their concept of life may be alien to the Aryan race, but it should not be ignored. This concept was absent in the case of the Jew, who was never a nomad, he was a parasite on the bodies of other nations.” I will remind less informed readers, that Nomads are herdsmen and hunter-gatherers with a migrant lifestyle. Thus, what follows? Stanisław Michalkiewicz lists the characteristics of the Jewish nation, using rhetoric that is rather out of place for a cultured man. I do not suspect him of a lack of education, quite the contrary, and he is also one skilled with words, which I must regretfully admit is a rare quality these days. Racial outbursts do not suit you, Mr. Stanisław – they do not suit someone on your level.
Here I would like to review, for those who did not read or listen to the aforementioned column piece, the conclusions we find regarding „civil unions”, which according to Stanisław Michalkiewicz, „differ from families in the sense that their primary goal is to provide the participants with sexual services, and not produce offspring – the idea of family is meant to become blurred, to the point of complete loss of meaning. For „partnership”(civil union), especially with a large amount of wine, or other drugs, can be had with a goat even, especially when it has been promoted to the status of a ‘feeling creature’, and thus – nearly human”. This is gutter talk, which would not be unusual coming from the likes of prof. Krystyna Pawłowicz, who recently stated, that „Instead of terrorizing the public opinion, we should hold an open discussion and ask the Polish people, whether they wish to, at the cost of the Catholic society, ratify legislation equating the situation of homosexuals with the status of marriage, as a bond between a man and a woman, protected by article 18 of the Polish Constitution.” I have no intention of explaining to the readers, that these demonized civil unions are not a marriage, but simply a legal act allowing people to live in peace, and not only for homosexuals. But the professor does not know this, or wishes not to know...
Let us return to the main topic. I also found out that Mr. Stanisław would certainly be a proponent, as I conclude from the text, of the forming of a Polish equivalent to the Ahnenerbe Institute, a quasi-scientific German think tank created in 1935. Their rather complicated name, loosely translated to Study society for primordial intellectual history, German Ancestral Heritage, registered society. Ernst Schäfer, Wolfram Sievers, Bruno Beger and Herman Wirthn, employed there, occupied themselves with proving nazi theories about the superiority of the Aryan race, through studies in history, ethnography, anthropology and archeology. As I found out from the piece, digging through someone’s biography is morally acceptable, because „public opinion has a right to know, from what nest comes the Moral Authority, or the Beloved Leader. Nobility obliges – at least to revealing who your father was – as was once the custom in Poland.” Unfortunately, the hated „social circle of Gazeta Wyborcza believes that ‘the pure nordic type is clean even without soap’and would like to convince us that scrutinizing the family roots of public figures is somehow indecent.”
The above text does not advocate so-called Polish anti-Semitism, because such a thing does not exist! There is but only Polish stupidity, and I wish to note, that stupidity is a supranational phenomenon, transcending borders, and a common one. Stanisław Michalkiewicz in his column piece entitled „a poor imitation of nobility” transcended the limits of good taste and abused his freedom of speech, not in a legal sense, since that is arbitrary, but in an ethical sense. Ladies and Gentleman, one does not make Jews into a tribe or compare gays to goats... it stinks of the backwoods!
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February 8, 2013 | 2:47 am
Posted by Klaudia Klimek
Ofir Shakir recognized a need for accessible ritual articles in his neighborhood of 'Gan Yavne'. After a researching some sites on the web he found 'Art Judaica', an international company working with several artists of ritual articles, and launched his on-line Judaica store called: 'All for the Jewish house'.
The list of item include everything from a mezuzah to tallit in the various forms they come in according to the different traditions of the Jewish ethnic groups: Ashkenazy and Sephardi, CHABAD and Yemenite.
How do you chose an article, and are there 'Kosher' obligatory criteria?
I try to keep a variable collection both by price and origin.
Some items do need to have a 'Kosher Stamp' such as the mezuzah and the tallit, but mostly I take special attention to the quality of the materials.
What kind of differences could you find between Ashkenazi and Sephardi buyers?
Ashkenazi mezuzah, for example is written in a special Ashkenazi script.
Ashkenazi houses keep 1 menorah to each boy, not like the Sephardic, for whom 1 menorah for the entire family is enough.
Would you classify your clients as solely religious, or not necessarily?
As a matter of fact, I rather serve the more secular and traditional population. The orthodox community has their own sources, and I wish to bring the others closer to better Judaica, since I know the lack of those in their surroundings, even though the interest in keeping a Jewish tradition in the house is growing among Israelis
Ofir believes elegant ritual articles, holy vessels is a Mitzvah for itself; As it's mentioned in 'Parashat Beshalech" by Moses to the people in Israel after crossing the Niles: "Zeh Eli, Ve-Anavehu" i.e. You should work g-d humbly and with grace.
We know today, the command to light candles in Hanukah applies to one candle only. But the lightning one more candle each day for 8 days gradually and respectfully is actually implementing this comment in a further graceful and elegant way.
"There's much to it for the meaning of material in holiness", say Shakir, "in this is why having fancy articles for holydays is dear to me. It brings a great meaning to the practicing when you respect it with proper Judaica Art. Just as much as King David had brought us the tradition of the 4th meal in Shabat- when food seizes to be nutrition of the body, and becomes a fiest and celebration to the soul. When we up-grade the material into the function of mitzvah making with take out its own secularity, and praise G-d with the beauty of art through this object.
February 8, 2013 | 2:43 am
Posted Dana Haddadi
Recent processes in the visibility of minorities in Europe, are gradually taking off as seen stages. Using stereotypes of the different nationalities for a laugh is much more common, especially when it comes out of the mentioned community, as Natives obviously feel uncomfortable making such jokes themselves.
This could be seen in Germany, which is not less ethnically homogenous than the US or the UK today. Nowadays, Germany's biggest minority is the Turkish community- about 3% of the German population
Young Turkish-German comedians like Kaya Yanar and Kerim Pamuk enjoy the benefit of playing with their own stereotypes humorously in order to confront German audiences with their ideas about the minority.
The new wave of comedians reflects an increasing self-confidence among this generation, as if it was a statement of emancipation: being able to poke fun at themselves.
As for the Jewish community: Jewish culture in Germany may be blossoming as the Jewish population climbs to a post-war high of over 200,000, but the number of professional German-Jewish comedians can still be counted on the fingers of one hand.
By Ivor Dembina, a London-based Jewish comedian who has done gigs in Germany, where he jokes about Dachau and Jewish director Dani Levy, director of Hitler comedy "Mein Führer", who is from Switzerland but lives in Berlin, it's the way of saying "things have moved on and the Jewish people are back," while granting a sense of relief at the comic ice being broken."
The "Tad Brothers" are Avi and David Toubiana, born in Düsseldorf and now located in Berlin.
They play all 18 of the roles in their 80 minutes Duo Show, called: "Murder on the Panini Express", based on Agatha Christie's 'Murder on the Orient Express'.
They themselves are from several origins: A Tunisian father who comes from an Italian family, and an Israeli mother, whose father was a proud Berliner, who managed to escape Germany a day before the "Night of Broken Glass".
Both grew up making up black humor jokes, like in any good old sarcastic Jewish family, as a mean of coping with the legacy of the Holocaust.
Both loved the theater and ended up studying drama in New York at the renowned Lee Strasberg Theater Institute.
Like any other comedian of a minority group, they wouldn't like to be affiliate explicitly with "Jewish humor", but wouldn't deny it: if it is for the fast-paced mix of wit and music like of the Max Brothers, the expansive gesticulation or that a major part of it involves self-mockery.
A key principle of their work is never to offend their audiences, though they are also not afraid to tackle controversial topics. For instance, they gave "Adi" the train driver in the sketch Hitleresque characteristics.
And who could be most legitimate a laugh about Hitler, if not the Jews?
After all, the best weapon against fear is humor."
February 8, 2013 | 2:40 am
Posted Kristina-Ruth Vasileva
“Hey dear, how are you? 10: 40 pm
I just came back from the cinema, watching “Argo” and
it made me wonder what would you think of that movie.
Was “Argo” shown in Iran at all? I was curious how
Tehran is pictured since it was filmed in Turkey; do
the buildings look similar; are the Iranians presented
in a stereotypical manner as Hollywood usually does?”
Seen 11:36 pm
My only Iranian friend I could talk to was the very first person I met last summer at a bus station in Bratislava while waiting to be picked by the MJC staff. I recognized her by the hijab (head covering). There are not many Muslims in Slovakia. This was keenly demonstrated when one of the ambassadors at the ceremony welcoming MJC to Bratislava (won’t disclose which country, not to embarrass him) asked me if the girls who are wearing those scarves were Muslims. We were a great attraction on that day for the city – hundreds of people dressed very colorfully as if it was a carnival of cultures - many in their traditional robes, laughing cheerfully, taking pictures and preserving memories together…
Bratislava Bus Station“Where’re you from?” I asked the girl at the bus station after we cleared up that we were waiting for the same car. :
“I am from Tehran. What about you?”
“I am from Bulgaria but I live in Berlin now.”
“Why did you move to Germany?”
“I came to study.”
“Why to Berlin?”
“Well, it has the biggest Jewish community in Germany.”
“Ah, so you are Jewish! I was still wondering until you said it, you could be Muslim as well.”
When I invite people to join our Muslim-Jewish Dialogue Group in Berlin, I sometimes have the feeling I am talking about self-help therapy group and it’s not far from the reality. There, we first admit as representatives of the both big communities or members of small ones that we have a problem. Once we do that, the next step is to break the ice or to be precise, the stereotypes we know about each other; third move – filling the knowledge gap about our both alienated folks.
While waiting for the car, we continued to talk:
“Have you heard about the“Israel Loves Iran Social Media Campaign?”
“That Campaign is absolutely creative and brave one. Many Iranians know that and have already liked it. But the situation and feedback about that campaign are radically different in Iran than in Israel. Buses in Tel-Aviv had pictures and posters with the name “Israel Loves Iran”. Many people admired the founder of the campaign but here in Iran it’s only on facebook and people still have the fear to show up their faces on the pictures.”
Every Generation and nation has its own way how to practice “Tikun-Olam”, resp. repairing the world. And I have a feeling that very soon it will bring the Messiah, as we Jews believe in. My parents will never completely understand the point of both: nor least the belief in the era of Messiahs revelation, but that’s a different story; and the great need for a sincere and qualitative inter-cultural dialogue. They were building a world where everyone would be equal, live a very similar life, and share the only allowed ideology. But equality does not lead to harmony.
“Have you been to MJC or similar events before in Germany or elsewhere?”
“I’ve been to a couple of inter-faith dialogues in my life but to be honest, they didn’t quite work. It all looked fake and superficial… That’s why I don’t expect much from MJC either. Do you have inter-cultural dialogue groups in Tehran?”
“Although we had many NGOs working on the intercultural dialogues, inter faith and other global issues, after sanctions many things have changed and we almost are just surviving with many difficulties that people can’t even think about those issues…”
When for the hundredth time the middle-eastern conflict is focused on by the media - demonstrations against “the enemies” or facebook images full with blood or hatred do not help much. It makes the conflict between us even more thoroughgoing. What really helps is a well organized and goal orientated inter-cultural or inter-faith dialogue. There we make the effort to listen to what we not quite agree on or as Ilja Sichrovsky, the founder of Muslim Jewish Conference said “we agree to disagree” but in a respectful manner.
This influences our own way of thinking and attitude. We can undertake changes within ourselves, to tear walls down in our heads by breaking stereotypes and prejudices, but also to acknowledging “the others” right for the freedom to approach things differently... And that’s what the MJC is all about...
Just as Rabbi Nathan Lopes Cardozo expresses in his writing that when God created the world, he spread the truth just like the light which comes down from the sun. By the time it reaches earth, it diverges in too many different colors; it evolves into many different dimensions. So too does the truth manifest itself in many different ways and everyone comprises a piece of the big puzzle.
“Did you tell your friends from Tehran you are going to a Muslim Jewish Conference?”
“Yes, they wanted to come as well and I hope they will be able to attend next year. And how did you find out about it?”
“I have many friends who were at the previous two and told me, it’s a life time experience but I am still skeptical…”
Everyone had their own reason to be there like for instance, those who already had few friendships with “the other”, but despite that they flew more than hundreds of kilometers to raise the questions which they are not comfortable to raise at home; or those who have never met a Jew before and have heard mainly negative things about them. There were at least five people among the Muslims to whom I could relate a hundred times better than to those are of my community. There were also those who once cried and those who made jokes all the time; those who screamed because they wanted to impress and those who were quiet but not because they had nothing to say. The only feeling which was missing there was the apathy. MJC was however, lacking representatives of the lower classes who couldn’t afford the expensive tickets. This is one of the crucial gaps for which sponsors are required to fill.
“What if you fall in love with a Jew at the upcoming five days?”
“I discussed that with my friends. They were really surprised and said, it’s impossible.. After I asked them to think more, they said it depends on the person. I also saw a comment on the Israel loves Iran’s website penned by a Muslim Iranian girl who felt in love with a Jewish guy, but she had written it is impossible to be accepted into a Jewish community being Muslim. So she was very depressed that she would never reach to her lover…”
Well, some Rabbis might not advise you to attend MJC or similar inter-faith events for the great chance of inter-marriage. But if I was strong enough to resist of joining Pakistani Panjabi dancing (as observant Jews don’t dance gender mixed), then you could succumb to a similar temptation either…
“Which committee are you in?”
“I am in the Art Committee as I paint and do photography. I brought my pictures to show in the Identities Exhibition here. I find that art is one of the ways how to build bridges between people.”
Besides the obligatory committees like “Women in Religion”, “Islamophobia & Anti-Semitism”, “Faithful Citizenship” etc., which we had to take part in, there was time for “self-made” sessions like “Ask the Zionist” and plenty of hallway discussions on the Middle East.
One of our main goals was to create projects on which to work after the conference is over.
In our committee we used a big part of the time instead to go through very intense Q&A sessions for which we were very grateful to our chairs. As a result we didn’t present great projects in the end, however many of us did continue to stay involved and organized a row of follow up regional activities. So, for example, I and some friends first named it mini-MJC reunion but surprisingly so many new people from Berlin showed up on the very first meeting. So we initiated a Muslim Jewish Dialogue Group which offers a safe space to raise questions and learn about each other.
“But have you met any Jews before?”, I asked hoping to be the first one…
“Yes, I have met Jews both inside and outside Iran. We have a Jewish community in Tehran which has their own Synagogue, Hebrew classes, events and a whole neighborhood.”
Another fact that cannot be stressed enough is that after more than half a year of any kind of conference or seminar, people still remain very enthusiastic as demonstrated by our active Facebook group. A five day conference has built up an entire community. Now that’s a very big deal!
Here comes my criticism regarding their motto: “What’s the big deal?” promoting on their website [->linked tohttp://muslimjewishconference.org]. In the video participants express how they all don’t eat pork, practice circumcision and so on, demonstrating cultural behaviors we share. Last days even had us made pictures in pairs saying things we both fancy.
But MJC carries much more global message than that, which is not only applicable for Jews and Muslims only: we shouldn’t close our eyes to what we disagree on, however we’ll never move forward via negative speech, hatred, aggressive protests but through respectful, complimentary, appreciative dialogue.
My personal, crazy scale for measuring the success of MJC was at the very last night when we had a talent show. Suddenly a flow of improvised jokes were pouring out. Few of them even border-line racist... Perhaps due to my already ‘challenged’ state and having gone through many help group therapies mind, I find it that telling racist jokes to each other is the very last level of challenging any stereotype. Simply laughing at a stereotypical joke without getting offended (or hunt for the enemies who said it) and therefore ridiculing people who actually believe in it, as Sascha Baron Cohen did in “Borat”. So a group of Jewish guys started to sing:
“In my country there is problem,
And that problem is the Jew.
They take everybody's money,
They never give it back.
Throw the Jew down the well,
So my country can be free.
You must grab him by his horns,
Then we have big party.”
It was simply hilarious – the song, the ambiance, the people, just all together.
At our small party later that night, in a typical eastern-European coffee shop, I experienced another joke with my newly Pakistani friend who whispered in my ear: “We have to leave immediately. I placed a bomb in the basement.” If before, I would fall into the trap of my irrational panic hunch, now I couldn’t stop laughing just as I did while listening to the racist Borat’s song.
im“I would love to come and see Iran one day. I heard it’s a beautiful country! I just have to make a new Bulgarian passport without my Israeli stamps in it.”
“You can really do that! But have a look at my Iranian passport.”
It was written: “The holder of this passport is not entitled to travel to the occupied Palestine.”
“At least you can visit Israel!”
She started to laugh: “No, occupied Palestine and of course, Israel.”
Finally the car has arrived to take us to one very unique and different conference
January 21, 2013 | 1:53 pm
Posted Dana Haddadi
Gay tourism in Tel Aviv given by:
Role: Gay Branding consultant
ü A Proud Israeli
ü A proud Tel Avivian
ü A proud Jew
ü A proud gay single boy
- At 2008, the year of the Tel Aviv's 100 anniversary the 'Cultural Pride Center' was established, in 'Meir Garden'.
-On 2009 during a youth educational activity in the city's LGBT association house an un-known assassinate enter the house with a gun and manage to hit 8 young boys and girls- most of them under-aged; 2 of them were killed. The crime remains unsolved.
- In 2010 Ministry of tourism with Tel Aviv city hall took the new marketing strategy considering Tel Aviv beaches (and bitches) to attract gays from all over the world, thus investing around 340 thousands Shekels on a pride oriented campaign. i.e. no more 'wailing' wall and other holly places.
-In 2012, the most established well known Gay Party line of Brussels name 'La Demence', fixed Tel Aviv as the final destination of their pleasure cruise; By doing so, it has crowned Tel Aviv to be their Gay Capital.
Tourist have been said to give back to the city when here around 10 million… and they clame Tel Aviv feels like their home.
-First Transgender marriage service (civil i.e. without a Rabbi) took place this January in Israel for the first time;
Same sex partners still cannot get married in Israel (Halachlically wise, which is state wise) and neither to bring together babies with a surrogate.
January 21, 2013 | 1:50 pm
Posted Ian Shulman
The Jewish Memory and Holocaust in Ukraine Museum, the biggest post-USSR Jewish memorial complex newly opened in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine, was declared to have a somewhat larger focus group than other Jewish establishments of the city. Just like the Menorah Jewish Community Center, where the museum is situated, it aspires to attract people of all beliefs, heritage and interests.
A Jewish museum rarely becomes a major attraction for non-Jewish public, but looks like the rule is going to be broken in Dnipropetrovsk, and here are some reasons:
The museum is accessible. It is not only that one can find the exhibition in the very center of the city and enter it for free with no need to speak to a doorman or a cashier. No prior knowledge of Judaism or Jewish culture is required. The ground floor exhibition introduces a visitor with the main concepts of Judaism through an impressive collection of ancient items - Torah scrolls, tzitzit, Kiddush cups and many more. Further rooms familiarize guests with the milestones of the Jewish history and some major holidays. If a visitor would like to hear some more than what captions say, he is welcome to join a free guided tour held every two hours.
The museum is universal. The first introductory exhibition is followed by the main one, focused on the topic of World War II and the Holocaust. Yet it manages to touch some extraordinary and important topics, such as Ukrainian Righteous Among the Nations or the involvement of the Jews in the Ukrainian Nationalists Organization. The third exhibition is dedicated to the Jewish life after the war, symbolically showing how the story goes on (a red ‘crack’ on the exhibition’s floor leads to the globe, a symbol of peaceful after-war life). Even though the Holocaust seems to be the main theme of the museum, both pre-war and after-war exhibitions are all-sufficient and full of interesting pieces.
The museum in innovative. All exhibitions are equipped with various interactive elements. One can track the movement of Soviet and German armies through the Ukrainian map projected on the wall; enjoy the animated early XX century postcards of Berdychiv or Lviv, or even use an ancient camera to take a photo of a friend standing on a street of 1910s Katerynoslav. Apart from interactivity, the museum features many modern art objects and decor complementing an exhibition’s theme (a monument to a broken piano is a strong symbol of the bright singing Jewish world destroyed by the Catastrophe).
Finally, summing up said above, the museum is important for the city. With its rich Jewish legacy, Dnipropetrovsk obviously lacked a Jewish museum. Even though the venue is dedicated to the Ukrainian Jewish history in general, the exhibitions provide a special focus to the Jewish heritage of Dnipropetrovsk, presenting many rare and surprising documents, photos and other valuable items. Moreover, the city simply lacked a modern and innovative museum. Most of Dnipropetrovsk museums offer some interesting collections, but haven’t been sufficiently renovated since the 1980s. Thus they lack modernity and interactivity needed to attract young audience - something the newly opened museum has and manages to do quite well. If the case will inspire other museums to follow the successful example, the whole city is going to hugely benefit from it.
And last but not least: it actually works. It’s 14:00 of a weekday and a dozen of visitors are waiting for a guided tour. This is quite a diverse crowd. Some of them decided to come here for the second time and still look quite captured by the exhibitions. Many of them are not familiar with the basics of Jewish culture, religion and history - they curiously follow the guide’s story. Many are not especially enthusiastic about the Holocaust exhibition - they prefer to pay attention to the Jewish customs, holidays and traditions. After a two-hour guided tour (covering only the most crucial points of the exhibitions) and a quick Q&A session another tour by another guide is already about to start. And again, a dozen of curious guests are exploring the exhibition halls.
The Jewish Memory and Holocaust in Ukraine Museum is an interesting phenomena no matter what you would like to find there - an impressive exhibition, a beautiful interactive center, a friendly introduction to the Jewish culture or even a combination of the three.
All photos are courtesy of the public relations department of The Jewish Memory and Holocaust in Ukraine Museum. Further photos can be found in Gallery section. www.ejpg.org
January 20, 2013 | 1:26 pm
Posted Ian Shulman
The Jewish activists played an important role in the revolutionary movement, which originated in the Russian Empire at the turn of the XX century and eventually led to the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 and the establishment of the USSR. Some opposers of the revolution even labeled it the ‘Jewish’ one, due to a substantial number of Jewish people (Leon Trotsky being the best known example) behind the turnover. This period of Russian history was indicated by a massive rise of various movements.
Workers, communists, anarchists, zionists, independence fighters were all starting their fight. Many of these were indeed lead by Jewish people or actually were Jewish movements (like zionism or BUND, Jewish Workers’ Union). Some memories have survived the massive repressions of the 1930s, which have demolished what was left of the revolutionary spirit. Some were completely forgotten. Aron Baron was probably one of the most rebellious and unchained leaders, causing unrest in any place he arrived to. But while many were fighting hard for the new government to take power, Baron’s life goal was to fight any form of government, power and order.
Aron Baron was a 15-year old Jewish baker boy from a small village in Kyiv region when he took part in a strike movement of Kyiv bakers union. It was in 1906. Baron’s journey has begun. He was arrested and sent to Siberia. He manages to flee to Chicago, where he joins the anarchists’ movement together with his wife Fanni. While in the USA, Baron becomes an active fighter for workers’ rights. He is a member of Industrial Workers of the World, an editor of ‘The Alarm’ and an active contributor to a number of other workers movement’s newspapers; collaborates with Jewish, American and Russian anarchists and labor unions, participates and leads countless demonstrations, gets beaten, arrested and set free again.
In 1917 Aron and Fanni return to Kyiv to become a part of the turbulent social and political life there. The baker’s union hasn’t forgotten Baron and nominated him as a deputy to Kyiv’s workers parliament.
At the same time, with the start of the Russian civil war just after the Bolshevik Revolution, Baron is assigned to form the first regiment of Ukrainian ‘red’ cossacks. In a week the army heads to the city of Poltava and captures it with Baron becoming the city’s governor. In the meanwhile, Baron solves the armed conflict between the anarchists and Soviets in Katerynoslav (modern-day Dnipropetrovsk). Though he doesn’t stay in the place for too long - German army enters Poltava and Aron together with other anarchists flees to Russian Rostov. In Rostov Baron proceeds with his mission - robbing banks, releasing prisoners and fighting the capitalists. Later Baron moves to Kursk, where he starts the local ‘The Alarm’ newspaper and creates and heads the Ukrainian Anarchist Confederation.
In 1918, together with the Soviet Army, Baron enters Kharkiv, Katerynoslav. Though apart of his army duties, Aron manages create Ukrainian Anarchist Confederation offices in the captured places. This doesn’t go in line with the Soviet’s strategy. After his lecture on ‘Anarchism and the Soviets’ in Katerynoslav, Baron is arrested.
Released again, Baron moves to Odessa - naturally, to publish his ‘The Alarm’. It gets banned by the Soviets. In couple of months he flees to Moscow. In some more months Baron gets accused of the explosion in a governmental building and gets to jail again. Released in 1920 and being seriously sick, Baron returns to Kharkiv. Collaborating with the head of Ukrainian anarchists Nestor Makhno, Baron still find time for writing for several newspapers, giving speeches at Kharkiv factories and labor unions and planing the all-Ukrainian anarchist assembly. Another plan Baron discusses with Makhno is a possibility to establish an autonomous anarchist land in Crimea. All of these plans, efforts and actions did not come true.
After 1920, Baron experiences never-ending arrests, being moved from one camp to another, tries to commit suicide, undertakes hunger strikes, being released and arrested again and again. He was executed in 1937.
Baron certainly was one of these forgotten fighters, drunken by the revolution and the possibility to change the world. His struggle, however right or wrong it was, was purely ideological, and that’s why execution alone was able to stop his fight.
January 15, 2013 | 1:54 pm
Posted Ian Shulman
The biggest (and probably the most splendid as well) Jewish community center in the world was recently opened in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine. The building, reminiscent both of an ultra modern tower complex and a pre-war constructivism dream, is called ‘Menorah’. Seven towers constituting the building indeed look like Menorah candles, especially at night, when each tower glows with a powerful illumination, looking somewhat like a spaceship landed on the banks of river Dnipro. In the daytime, the towers are shining with a precious Israeli marble. The immense 50,000 sqm construction, which encircles the old synagogue, hosts a luxurious hotel, a youth hostel, a restaurant, a concert hall, a museum dedicated to the story of Jewish life and the Holocaust in Ukraine, a tourism center, office premises and many more. This set is not random: the center is planned to be a ‘harmonious combination of spirituality, culture and business’ as well as to become an important landmark for the whole city and country population disregarding faith or background.
The center appeared exactly where it was supposed to - with a beautiful ‘Golden Rose’ synagogue at its feet (built in the 19th century and rebuilt in 2001), Menorah is located on Sholem-Aleichem street, named after a legendary Ukrainian Yiddish author of ‘Fiddler on the roof’ and many other works. That’s where the heart of Dnipropetrovsk lies; that’s also where the heart of city’s Jewish life is and was from the very beginning - the previous name of Sholom-Aleichem street used to be ‘Evreyskaia’, literally meaning ‘Jewish’ street.
Dnipropetrovsk, country’s 4th largest city situated in the Central Ukraine, was always considered an important Jewish center. Still before the war, the Jews were nearly constituting the majority of population. The city still had an immense Jewish population till the fall of communism, since many Jews managed to escape the city to the Asian regions of the USSR during the war. Today, after the massive emigration of the 1990s, official numbers say some 15,000 Jews live in the 1,000,000 people city (unofficial sources claim the numbers of above 30,000). The community is led by Ihor Kolomoyskyi and Hennadiy Boholyubov - businessmen, billionaires, Jewish leaders and one of the most influential people of Ukraine. These people are also initiators and main sponsors of Menorah center and major guests at center’s opening in October 2012, together with the Chief rabbi of Israel, city’s officials and the ambassadors of Germany, the USA and Israel. Another prominent figure behind the center - Hennadiy Akselrod, mentioned as the conceptualist and developer of Menorah, - was killed in April 2012. His name is put on a memorial plaque at one of the entrances.
Opened in October 2013, Menorah is still on its way to fully launch all of its facilities. Nevertheless, the center doesn’t experience any lack of visitors. Menorah regularly hosts different performances, exhibitions, concerts and lectures. The program is not limited to the Jewish culture; it rather involves famous personalities which are of interest for a regular, though well-educated visitor. This opened, multicultural focus relates to the whole center. For example, the store section features an ever growing range of shops, including the one with Ukrainian folk art. Signs and labels in Menorah can also be seen in different languages - English, Ukrainian, Russian and Hebrew.
One of many distinctive features of Menorah is its accessibility. Not only it is located in the very center of the city, surrounded by business centers, shopping malls and architectural landmarks. Anyone can access it anytime within the opening hours and take a walk along its spacious hallways, decorated with full-sized patterns of some old Dnipropetrovsk buildings, historic pictures and postcards. The same applies to the museum of Jewish life and the Holocaust in Ukraine. The entrance is free; one can walk in anytime not even talking to anyone, stroll through some exciting exhibitions or join a regular guided tour. That’s just one of many features underlying the core message of the new center - openness to people of many religions, nations and occupations. All one needs to do in order to see how the Jewish life looks like today is their city and country is to enter the building.