Israel's aerial bombardment, the most intensive in the Gaza Strip in the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, has killed at least 320 people, most of them militants belonging to the terrorist group Hamas, although tens of children were reported dead in surprise attacks on the crowded strip.
The assault, which started Saturday, came after days of intensified rocket attacks launched from Gaza on Israel's southern towns and farms. The Palestinian rocket fire, launched even before a Hamas-Israel ceasefire formally lapsed Dec. 19, has killed at least four Israelis and is emptying the south of its residents. Ehud Barak, Israel's defense minister, warned of "all-out war," possibly including a land invasion
Buried beneath the fretting over whether the renewed conflict would kill talks between Israel and the relatively moderate leadership of the Palestinian Authority were hints that it could in fact bolster the negotiations, if only by marginalizing Hamas. That, in turn, could help Obama clear the ground for a breakthrough, a prospect Obama's team seemed to recognize by limiting its reactions to expressions of support for Israel.
"He's going to work closely with the Israelis," David Axelrod, Obama's senior adviser, told CBS' Face the Nation on Sunday when asked about the outbreak. "They're a great ally of ours, the most important ally in the region. And that is a fundamental principle from which he'll work."
Washington pundits and officials in European capitals are casting the flare up as a crisis that could scuttle Obama's stated intention of developing talks -- first launched a year ago by the Bush administration -- into a final status agreement.
Jackson Diehl, the deputy editor of the Washington Post's editorial page, said the war was the final failure for Ehud Olmert, the Israeli prime minister who is to leave office by March to face corruption charges. "His failure represents another missed opportunity for Middle East peace -- and probably means that the incoming Obama administration, like the incoming Bush administration of 2001, will inherit both a new round of Israeli-Palestinian bloodshed and a new Israeli government indisposed to compromise," Diehl wrote in Monday's Post.
Meanwhile, Israel is casting the war first of all as one of necessity: The bombardment of Israel's south, in the days before Israel launched its aerial counter attacks, at times reached 70 rockets a day. The effect has been to devastate the region's economy and to create levels of anxiety that Israelis regard as intolerable; the retaliatory strikes earned the support of the vast majority of Israelis in weekend polling.
Sallai Meridor, the Israeli envoy to Washingtons, cautioned that the action was not undertaken with the peace process in mind. "The direct reason for these activities is to remove a threat over the head of 500,000 Israelis -- not a theoretical threat, a real one," Meridor told JTA. "Three were killed only today. No country would sacrifice its citizens to terror."
Meridor added, however, that an Israeli success could have salutary effects on the peace process. "Indirectly, the chances for peace are dependent on the weakening of the enemies of peace. If Hamas strengthens, the chances of peace weaken; if Hamas weakens, it contributes to the chances of peace."
In remarks Sunday to his Cabinet, Olmert said the aim was to "restore normal life and quiet to residents of the south who -- for many years -- have suffered from unceasing rocket and mortar fire and terrorism designed to disrupt their lives and prevent them from enjoying a normal, relaxed and quiet life, as the citizen of any country is entitled to."
Another factor might be political calculation. Little love is lost between Olmert and his government partners: Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni, who has assumed control of his Kadima Party, and Barak, who heads the Labor Party. Yet Olmert, Livni and Barak are united in hopes of keeping Benjamin Netanyahu, the leader of the opposition Likud Party who has vowed to bring talks with the Palestinian to a halt, from coming to power; the first post-assault polls show their chances of doing that substantially improving.
The effect Israel's current leadership sought was not simply to remind the public that doves are capable of defending Israel, but that the onslaught would help reinforce the current round of talks. The aim, Director of the Shin Bet security service Yuval Diskin suggested at the weekly Cabinet meeting, is to isolate Hamas. "The mood among a not unsubstantial part of the Palestinian population understands that the operation is against Hamas, which has inflicted great suffering on the residents of Gaza," Diskin said in remarks relayed by Oved Yehezkel, the Cabinet secretary.
That approach was echoed by Mahmoud Abbas, the Palestinian Authority president, in remarks Monday on P.A. television.
"I say in all honesty, we made contact with leaders of the Hamas movement in the Gaza Strip," Abbas said in a translation made available by Palestinian Media Watch. "We spoke with them in all honesty and directly, and after that we spoke with them indirectly, through more than one Arab and non-Arab side ... We spoke with them on the telephone and we said to them: We ask of you, don't stop the ceasefire, the ceasefire must continue and not stop, in order to avoid what has happened, and if only we had avoided it."
Ziad Asali, an Abbas ally who founded the American Task Force on Palestine, said it was notable that Abbas and other Arab leaders were muted in their calls on Israel to draw back.
"There is a certain withholding of outright support" for Hamas "that usually would accrue to any party in active conflict with Israel," he said.
Arab frustration with Hamas stemmed from its refusal until now to defer to Abbas as the lead negotiator in peace talks and its insistence on armed conflict as the only way to confront Israel, Asali said.
"There is no military solution to this conflict," he said. "At the end of the day there has to be a negotiating process, and the people who are clearly authorized to negotiate on behalf of the Palestinians are the P.A. folks."
He warned, however, that there was a limited window to exploit Hamas' marginalization, and joined a number of dovish pro-Israel groups -- including J Street, Americans for Peace Now, Brit Tzedek v'Shalom and the Israel Policy Forum -- in calling for an immediate cease-fire.
"We don't know how the parties on the ground will react," Asali said. "We see ever increasing human suffering in Gaza that would add to the pressure to bring about some kind of ceasefire."
Should the bloodshed intensify, the sufferings of ordinary Palestinians, joined with public outrage on the "Arab street" with Israel's actions and the chaotic nature of the conflict, could turn an opportunity into a crisis -- and an Obama administration faced with a crisis on Jan. 21 might not be equipped to respond.
"The issue is how urgently they would prioritize this conflict," Asali said.
Hamas' responsibility for re-launching hostilities, coupled with a desire to corner the terrorist group into deferring to Abbas' negotiations with Israel, was likely behind the near unanimous backing in Washington for Israel's actions.
Most significant was the Obama transition team's steadfast commitment to Israel's right to respond, albeit expressed with the requisite deference to George W. Bush as the sitting president.
"The president-elect recognizes the special relationship between the United States and Israel," Axelord, Obama's adviser, said on CBS. "It's an important bond, an important relationship. He's going to honor it. And he wants to be a constructive force in helping to bring about the peace and security that both the Israelis and the Palestinians want and deserve. And obviously, this situation has become even more complicated in the last couple of days and weeks as Hamas began its shelling and Israel responded."
Pressed, Axelrod suggested Obama's strategy would be shaped by his own visit over the summer to Israel's frontlines.
"He said then that when the bombs are raining down on your citizens, there is an urge to respond and act and try and put an end to that," Axelrod said. "You know, that's what he said then, and I think that's what he believes."
The Bush administration and congressional leaders of both parties also issued statements squarely blaming Hamas, followed up with pleas to Israel to curb civilian casualties.
"Peace between Israelis and Palestinians cannot result from daily barrages of rocket and mortar fire from Hamas-controlled Gaza," U.S. Rep. Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.), Speaker of the House of Representatives, said in a statement. "Hamas and its supporters must understand that Gaza cannot and will not be allowed to be a sanctuary for attacks on Israel. "
The White House sounded a similar note: "Hamas' continued rocket attacks into Israel must cease if the violence is to stop. Hamas must end its terrorist activities if it wishes to play a role in the future of the Palestinian people. The United States urges Israel to avoid civilian casualties as it targets Hamas in Gaza."