Eighteen months ago, when Lenard Cohen's 4-year-old daughter was enrolled in the family's congregational preschool, the Philadelphia-area father of three decided to go back to school himself.
He signed up for the Florence Melton Parent Education Program, a Jewish adult education course for parents of preschoolers.
Raised as a Reform Jew, Cohen said he was on the "lower end" of the observance scale when he signed up for the course, which meets once a week, 30 weeks a year, two hours at a stretch, for two full years.
His goal, he says, was to "increase my knowledge of Jewish practice, Jewish history and Jewish ethics, and to be able to pass it on to my children better."
The course has done that and more, he says, bringing together a group of parents with disparate backgrounds and experiences.
"We're all there because we're parents of preschoolers and we want to learn," he says.
With a number of recent studies showing that preschools have a profound effect on the Jewish life of the entire family, and that greater linkage is needed between preschools and the rest of the Jewish educational and communal network, educators and philanthropists are engaging in new initiatives to bring parents of Jewish preschoolers into the process.
Some of those initiatives are formal, such as the Melton program, which operates in 15 cities, and some are more informal, involving interaction and greater outreach between parents and their children's school.
"There's a sense of fragmentation," says Lyndall Miller, coordinator of the Jewish early childhood education certificate program at Gratz College in Melrose Park, Pa. "Parents don't have models of how to parent. People don't talk to each other about how they can build relationships with their children. Schools must become communities, and they don't know how."
Simply making the effort to reach out is a crucial beginning, educators say.
Ina Regosin, founding director of the Early Childhood Institute and dean of students at Hebrew College in Newton, Mass., says that when she was director of a Jewish preschool 30 years ago, she'd routinely invite parents into the building when they dropped off their children, "to educate them, of course."
The school sent home weekly newsletters for the parents to read, and held evening programs on Jewish holidays and other topics.
The best Jewish preschools today all engage in that kind of active outreach to parents, and try to make it part of the natural rhythm of family life.
"Whatever we do for the children we do for the adults," says Helen Cohen, who 12 years ago founded a preschool at Temple Israel, a large Reform congregation in Boston. Teachers send home weekly newsletters on the Torah portion, with the Hebrew words translated and transliterated. They hold family Havdalah services, and send parents home with clear instructions on how to do the ritual themselves.
Taking part in a Jewish learning experience at their child's preschool is a nonthreatening way for many parents with little or no Jewish education to increase their own knowledge and feel more at home with Jewish observance.
Sometimes preschools run separate, adults-only classes for parents to study Torah or learn Jewish parenting skills.
"Our families are so assimilated, a lot of them are not comfortable with the rituals," says Shelley Smith, preschool director at Congregation Beth Israel, a Reform synagogue in Portland, Ore. "We create a safe zone for them to learn from the ground up, together with their children.
Sending kids home on Friday with "Shabbat boxes," which typically include candles, transliterations of the blessings and challah baked by the child that day in class, is popular at many preschools.
"Who won't hang the mezuzah your child made on the bedroom door?" Smith says. "Who on Friday night won't stick candles in the Shabbat candlesticks your child made out of Play-Doh?"
At the Osher Marin JCC preschool in San Rafael, director Janet Harris stands in her front lobby every morning to greet the children and their parents. She shakes their hands and personally invites them to the school's family programs.
The Osher Marin preschool is one of 12 schools involved in a pilot project by the Jewish Early Childhood Education Initiative, which was launched in 2004 to develop models of preschools that bring the entire family into the project of Jewish learning.
Mark Horowitz, the initiative's executive director, says that each school receives funding and coaching to deepen the Jewish and developmental content in the classrooms, and to build strong relationships with the parents.
Next year, the program will add 10 to 20 new preschools to the project.
"If we can create communities of Jewish families around these preschools, then they will want to continue their connection with Jewish education and institutions," he says. "We will have created a craving for Jewish life. It might mean congregational affiliation, or membership in Jewish Community Centers, or Jewish day school -- some meaningful way to continue the communities in which they have been flourishing."
The Melton Parent Education Program is one of two formal initiatives to emerge in recent years. The program, based at Hebrew University in Jerusalem and run out of its North American office in Northbrook, Ill., is modeled after the successful Florence Melton Adult Mini-School curriculum.
"We promote pluralism, text-based study and interactive learning," says Mitch Parker, director of the program for preschool parents.
"We encourage the parents to realize that what they learn in class is relevant to Jewish family life, and to take the lesson home. We don't teach the how-tos, but the whys of Judaism and the importance of it."
This spring, 450 parents are enrolled nationwide. And it's having an impact.
More of those parents are enrolling their children in day school -- the stated goal of the Avi Chai Foundation, which subsidizes tuition for the program. The program is also, in some cases, open to parents of children in the younger grades of day school.
And, Parker says, "We definitely see behavioral changes" among the parent-students. "They admit that after two years, they are doing more Jewish things."
Deborah Bradley of Walled Lake, Mich., outside Detroit, is in her second year of the program. Her three children all went to a Conservative congregational preschool. The two oldest are now in day school, and the youngest will start next year. The decision to put her kids in day school "evolved," she says, as she and her husband saw how much they were learning in preschool.
She decided to take the Melton program "not only because of my love of studying, but to be able to delve into topics my children were getting introduced to in Jewish day school."
Her 10-year-old had been asking difficult questions about Jewish beliefs regarding afterlife, cremation and where she stood on abortion.
"I came in with good knowledge, but getting Tanach references was helpful," she says, referring to the Bible. "It helps me communicate better with the kids."
Another formal education program operates in the Boston area and western Massachusetts. Ikkarim, an adult learning program for parents of 1- to 5-year-olds, is run by Hebrew College and Combined Jewish Philanthropies of Boston. The Ikkarim program operates at several local synagogues. Focusing on Jewish text study, it targets parents of preschool-age children in its exploration of how Jewish values apply to contemporary family relationships.
Regosin of Hebrew College says that it's critical to offer this kind of outreach to young Jewish parents, because they're at the point in their lives when they're making decisions that will affect the Jewish nature of their home for years to come.
"You've got families that are so open at this point, especially when it's their first child," she says. If the preschool experience is good, they're more likely to continue that child's Jewish education, and to send their younger children to preschool as well.
"When a young family makes that choice and walks through the door, it's a tremendous opportunity," she says. "If you have teachers and directors committed to strong Jewish education, they can have tremendous impact."