On June 29, the San Diego Natural History Museum will open the exhibition "Dead Sea Scrolls," the largest, most comprehensive show ever of these ancient treasures. It will include authentic scrolls, illuminated biblical manuscripts, artifacts, landscape and aerial photography and interactive displays about science, discovery and exploration. Thanks to loans from the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), 24 Dead Sea Scrolls - 10 exhibited for the first time ever - will be on display during the six-month run of the exhibition.
"We've really gone out of our way to present the context of the story, the context of the place, how these things were discovered, what some of the various theories are about them and the site that was closest to where they were discovered," said Risa Levitt Kohn, curator of the exhibition.
Many aspects of this exhibition are unique. Designed specifically for the San Diego Natural History Museum, this is not a traveling show. Normally, most of the Dead Sea Scrolls are permanently housed under the care and custody of the IAA, who usually, to ensure preservation of the 2,000-year-old parchment, allow only one set of scrolls to be exhibited for a three-month period outside of Israel. The San Diego museum has been granted the unprecedented opportunity for an extended exhibition with 12 scrolls displayed for the first three months and an additional 12 in the last three months. This is no small feat, considering the rigorous standards of the IAA.
"Our goal is to preserve them for at least another 2,000 years," said Pnina Shor, head of the IAA's Artifacts Treatment and Conservation Department. "The Dead Sea Scrolls are extremely fragile and sensitive, and three issues have to be considered carefully before allowing them to be exposed for [even] a limited period of time: illumination, temperature and humidity. On our site visit we check that the venues that wish to exhibit them are up to it and will be able to maintain our strict requirements." After the exhibition, she adds, the scrolls will return to Jerusalem, where they will have to "rest" for at least another year.
Kohn herself has forgotten what it means to rest because of the amount of time and energy that goes into curating a world-class exhibition, yet she exudes an aura of deep satisfaction - much as you'd expect to see in someone who has spent months digging in the dirt and chipping away at rocks, slowly unearthing treasure after buried treasure.
Misconceptions about the Dead Sea Scrolls abound, she said.
"When many people think of them, they assume they are all biblical in nature. They're often surprised to hear that there are [around] 900 scrolls, of which only 207 are biblical."
The biblical scrolls contain all the books in the Hebrew bible, except the Book of Esther - a mystery that remains unsolved. There are also numerous apocryphal manuscripts (texts not included in the biblical canon) and the so-called "sectarian scrolls," which contain biblical commentary, religious legal writings, prayers, poems and compositions that predict a coming apocalypse.
Although their origins have been a subject of controversy, most scholars believe the scrolls were copied and composed by a group that broke away from mainstream Judaism to live a communal life at Qumran. They called themselves the "Sons of Light," and those living in Jerusalem - including the priesthood at the Temple - the "Sons of Darkness." When the Romans invaded around 68 C.E., the Qumran community hid their manuscripts in nearby caves, where they remained until the Bedouin goat-herder found them.
The stories that surround the Dead Sea Scrolls are filled with the unexpected, and the story of how this exhibition came into being is no exception. Three years ago Kohn, the director of the Jewish studies program at San Diego State University and also the first person to earn a doctorate in ancient history and Hebrew Bible from UCSD, was having lunch with her former professor and renowned biblical scholar, David Noel Freedman. They were joined by Weston Fields, director of the Dead Sea Scrolls Foundation. Fields had just returned from an exhibition of the Dead Sea Scrolls at a small museum at Grand Rapids, Mich., and his enthusiasm over its success was contagious, Kohn said: "I became intrigued with the idea and plied him with questions: 'how much did it cost, how much space did you need, how many scrolls came, what's involved in putting this together?' Eventually I turned to Dr. Freedman and said, 'We need to do this here,' and he said, 'No, you need to do this here.'"
Next came the exhaustive research, and then came the hunt for museum venues. The San Diego Natural History Museum had just undergone a major expansion and seemed in every way to be a perfect fit. To her surprise, Michael Hager, president and CEO of the museum, thought so, too.
As daunting an undertaking as this has been, things have gone remarkably smoothly so far, considering the scope of the project, Kohn said, while acknowledging that she's had the good fortune to draw upon the expertise of world-renowned historians, archeologists, biblical scholars and scientists, many of whom will participate in the museum's series of lectures related to the show.
When Hager felt that that the story shouldn't end in 68 C.E. with the latest of the Dead Sea Scrolls, she learned there was a very large collection of biblical manuscripts from about a thousand years later that are kept in the Russian Library in St. Petersburg. Negotiations began to bring out some of that collection, then some from the British Library and, as Kohn said, "It sort of started a domino effect and that's how we got to the situation we have now - where we have [manuscripts] coming from all over the world." The Copper Scroll, arriving for the first time in the U.S. from the Department of Antiquities in Jordan, is the most mysterious and intriguing of all. Hammered into a thin sheet of copper, the text cites some 64 locations where more than 100 tons of gold, silver, scrolls and priestly items were supposedly hidden.
They have never been found, and nobody knows why, or if, they ever even existed.
Kohn is particularly moved by the Psalms scroll.
"We have a very large piece of the Psalms scroll coming, and when I saw it - it's one of the easier texts to read if you can read any Hebrew - I recognized immediately that there were prayers in the psalms on the scroll that are still used in synagogues today," she said. "I thought, 'wouldn't it be amazing to stand in front of the case and look at the text and hear how the prayers are sung today. So I enlisted the wonderful voice of a friend of mine who came in and we taped her."
Upon entering the exhibition visitors will be surrounded by stunning photographic landscapes by Israeli photographers Neil Folberg and Duby Tal, exploring Israel's unique beauty and the lowest, saltiest place on earth - the Dead Sea.
Visitors will then enter an area called "Discovery and Science," where they will be transported back to the original mid-century excavation of the caves where the scrolls were discovered, and of Qumran, a site close to the caves. Original archaeological tools, artifacts, photographs and a replica of the archeologists' tent will re-create the excitement of the scrolls' initial discovery.
The discovery area will give way to an exploration of the science of the Dead Sea Scrolls, where visitors will see how scientific methods unlock the mysteries of the scrolls and help researchers better understand them. The exhibit investigates scroll preservation, DNA and chemical analysis, infrared technology, Carbon-14 dating, and digital document reconstruction.
"Techniques such as computer imaging weren't available in 1980, and four or five years ago it wasn't possible for people to have access to material in high-resolution form," said Bruce Zuckerman, director of the West Semitic Research Project and associate professor of Hebrew Bible at USC's School of Religion. These techniques allow him to look at what had previously been a blur and "to read the inks as they cross each other, and know which stroke is over which stroke." And the fewer times scholars need to access the fragile original fragments and can instead work from digitally reconstructed documents, the longer the scrolls can be preserved, decoded and shared with the public, he said.
Re-creating the goat herder's experience, visitors will enter through a cave like one of the scroll caves near the Dead Sea. Then they will explore the archaeological site of Qumran at the height of its existence, around 100 B.C.E. to 68 C.E. Authentic artifacts, including coins, sandals and an inkwell will provide insight into the lives of this community. Included in the price of admission, a virtual reality tour of Qumran (see Page 9) will be featured in the Museum's giant-screen theater. By the time visitors reach the scroll room they will have a far greater understanding of the scrolls' history, significance and context.
"For some people, simply sitting in the space where the scrolls are is a spiritual experience," Kohn said. "Some of them for religious regions, some of them simply because these documents are so old. For Jews to look at a biblical text like Deuteronomy, the Ten Commandments and see the same Hebrew writing that you see in Torah scrolls today and realize that this is our oldest copy of this text, is a very moving experience."
"Dead Sea Scrolls," June 29-December 31, 2007, San Diego Natural History Museum, 1788 El Prado, Balboa Park, San Diego. (619) 232-3821. www.sdnhm.org.
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