The same kind of logic could be applied to American-born painter R. B. Kitaj, who spent much of his life in Britain and died last month in Los Angeles. Kitaj found his gradual self-definition as a Jewish artist through his connection to what came to be known (probably inaccurately) as the "School of London," a term of his own invention.
Likely under the strong spell of Francis Bacon, the group counted among its other (sort of) Jewish "members" Lucien Freud, Leon Kossoff and Frank Auerbach. At a time when variants of abstraction were giving way to pop art, these artists remained committed to a very different, even traditional, sort of figurative painting mode. But Freud, Kossoff and Auerbach were, in their own way, legitimate Brits, and thus presumably not as put-off by the odd ways in which so many British Jews yearn for invisibility insofar as their Jewishness is concerned. Kitaj, like other contemporary American Jews, never quite felt that self-denial, even when he felt no strong Jewish attachments. Despite the Anti-Defamation League's attempts to persuade us otherwise, American Jews have come a long way from the fearful 1930s attitudes that Philip Roth so brilliantly describes in "The Plot Against America" -- when we hopelessly yearned to be perceived as undifferentiated Americans.
Two important exhibitions examining the Jewish content of Kitaj's work will open in Los Angeles in January -- "R.B. Kitaj: Passion and Memory -- Jewish Works from His Personal Collection" at the Skirball Cultural Center and "Portrait of a Jewish Artist: R.B. Kitaj in Text and Image," at UCLA's Archive of Jewish Culture. These shows will offer the opportunity to calibrate just how "Jewish" Kitaj's art really is -- as distinct from his rhetoric about art-making in the diaspora. I doubt that Kitaj would have come up with his two "Diasporist Manifestos" (1989 and 2007) had he not lived so long in the comfort/discomfort of a London that in turns admired and reviled him as an artist -- and, he felt, as a Jew.
Kitaj's art's connection to Judaism is not just that of a "diasporist" artist, however -- always on the outside in some indefinable way, and yet also wholly celebrated as mainstream. After all, this is an artist who was long represented by the prestigious Marlborough Galleries, and his portraits of friends, even notable Jews such as Isaiah Berlin and Philip Roth, don't necessarily suggest that his subject matter is Jewish -- or do they?
Nevertheless, it should be noted that Kitaj was not the first artist to find relationships between the Shoah and the Passion of Christ, though his "Passion" works, which are included in the Skirball exhibition, reflect Kitaj's intense need as an artist to anchor himself in the traditions of western art -- which is largely dominated by Christian iconography -- while also figuring his own way through issues that range from recapturing bits of Jewish history to working through Jewish ideas of thinkers, such as Martin Buber.
I first met Ron Kitaj in the late 1960s, when I was living and working in Berkeley and Kitaj came there to lecture. We became casual friends and remained so; I visited with him and his late wife, Sandra Fisher a few times in London, and then met up with him again much later in Westwood, where he moved after exiling himself from London. In 1965, I was blown away by Kitaj's first New York gallery exhibition, at Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, which I saw when I was still working at The Jewish Museum. My interest certainly had nothing to do with his being a Jewish artist (I doubt that I even knew he was Jewish), but rather, his obvious talent. Here was a serious painter -- in the age of Pop/Op and post-AbEx Color Field and all the other "isms" of the day -- who was a skilled draughtsman with a very sure sense of using images, a sensibility that leapfrogged from that of the early 20th-century abstractionists and colorists right over a slew of subsequent modes, and did so with extraordinary self-confidence. Kitaj may not have been the unmatched draughtsman of his era that he claimed to be, but he was an amazingly talented artist, with breathtaking control of line and a gorgeous sense of color. His work is filled with imagery both suggestive and elusive, and often confounding.
Critical reaction to Kitaj's work was often problematic, ranging from high praise to the damning reviews that ultimately led to his 1997 departure from London. The fluctuations were probably more the result of his not being easily pigeonholed -- art writers need comfortable categorizations no less than anyone else -- than because of the evolution of his work. Indeed, given the many decades of Kitaj's productivity, it's astonishing to consider how consistent his work was -- in style, if not in subject matter.
That steadiness, too, has been off-putting to some critics, conditioned as we are to save our highest regard only for what's new and different. From early in his career, narrative guided many Kitaj paintings, even as so much of the art of the moment was anti-narrative. Whether his commitment to visual storytelling has anything to do with being Jewish remains an interesting, if perhaps unanswerable, question. Much has been written about him, however; indeed probably no other contemporary Jewish artist has been so seriously deconstructed, not just for his art, but for his writings. "Critical Kitaj: Essays on the work of R.B. Kitaj," edited by James Aulich and John Lynch, (2000), is the most important example, but not the sole one. And if we can't easily discern the influence of Kitaj on other artists, or on deflecting the course of art in our time, there are hints all around us -- can we really imagine the South African artist William Kentridge's drawings-qua-animated-cinematic parables without Kitaj as precedent?
In Los Angeles, January's two exhibitions will be bittersweet reminders of the artist's untimely passing. For those interested in "Jewish art" issues, they also will provide an opportunity to ponder the meaning of that contested pair of words. Kitaj challenged us to get beyond our Chagall fetish, with its comfortable visual references to a lost world played out in the style of the early Modernists. Quite assertively, he eschewed the sentimentality and asked us to view art in intellectual terms, articulately throwing down an important gauntlet filled with lessons that can be applied to all art, and not just Kitaj's.It's a tribute to Los Angeles that, like David Hockney, Kitaj found the city as the most comfortable venue for his "exile" -- because for all its fashion obsessions, Los Angeles remains less constrained by the "dos and don'ts" of the art world than the more established art cities like New York or London. And, indeed, it was in Los Angeles that R.B. Kitaj, even through the somewhat anti-social and depressive attitudes of his last years, could most easily be an artist, a Jewish artist, an American artist, or whatever other self-definition might have given him the comfort he so desperately craved, but perhaps never found.
"R. B. Kitaj: Passion and Memory - Jewish Works from His Personal Collection" opens Jan. 11, on view through March 30. Skirball Cultural Center 2701 North Sepulveda Blvd., Los Angeles. (310) 440-4500. www.skirball.org.
"Portrait of a Jewish Artist: R. B. Kitaj in Word and Image" opens January 8 and runs through March 30. For more information, call (310) 825-5387. http://www.cjs.ucla.edu/
Tom Freudenheim is a retired museum director who writes about art and cultural issues.