June 29, 2006
The Lichtenstein Formula for a Jewish Paper
"The role of a Jewish newspaper is to connect the Jewish community, not to unify it," said Gene Lichtenstein, founding editor of The Journal.
During his nearly 15-year tenure, which ended in 2000, Lichtenstein's formula was to hire good, independent writers and columnists who could produce articles that raised the interest, and frequently the hackles, of both professional and peripheral Jews.
"I wanted stories that people would discuss and argue about the following day," Lichtenstein said during a lengthy interview at his home near the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
This concept doesn't seem so revolutionary now, but it went counter to the tradition of most American Jewish weeklies in decades past.
The purpose of those publications was precisely to unify their communities in material and moral support of their federations, which usually financed the papers, and other Jewish and Israeli causes. A basic rule was to avoid criticism and controversy.
In that sense, Lichtenstein was an odd, even risky, choice as editor, and his selection split the then Jewish Federation Council, he recalls.
When Lichtenstein visited Los Angeles in 1985 to court his future wife, Jocelyn, the city's Jews had the unusual choice of three competing weeklies.
They were the venerable B'nai B'rith Messenger, the maverick Heritage, both independently owned, and the Jewish Community Bulletin, the official Federation organ.
Much of The Federation's leadership was dissatisfied with the coverage of all three papers and decided to explore a new format with a new editor to replace its own Bulletin.
At this point, Lichtenstein remembers, he was contacted by Ethel Narvid, a key player in Democratic and city politics, on behalf of a Federation committee appointed to find a new editor to shape a new paper.
Lichtenstein, the grandson of Russian immigrants, had a resume combining experience as psychologist, journalist and academic.
He had worked for The New York Times, Fortune, London Economist and as literary editor at Esquire, where his contributors included the likes of Saul Bellow and Philip Roth.
On the academic side, he had served as chairman of the journalism department at the University of Rhode Island and taught courses in mass communications at USC and UC Berkeley.
Perhaps equally important for the position at hand, he had started a newspaper in the Boston area, the Jewish Journal of the Northshore.
As he recalls it, in his first interview with The Federation committee, chaired by attorney Richard Volpert, Lichtenstein outlined his concept for the new paper.
"I wanted an American newspaper, Jewish but connected to the larger world," he said. "It wouldn't just reflect the viewpoint of The Federation or be mainly about fundraising. It wouldn't print only favorable stories about the Jewish community and Israel."
In addition, he would insist on good writing, and the contributions of columnists would be central to the paper.
After that presentation, Lichtenstein thought that his chances of getting the job were pretty slim, and he and Jocelyn went on a vacation trip to London.
To his surprise, "I got a midnight call from Volpert and he offered me the editorship," Lichtenstein said.
Shortly afterward, Narvid gave a lunch at her home for some old friends, including Los Angeles Times labor editor Harry Bernstein and this reporter, to introduce Lichtenstein.
"Harry told me that I was kidding myself if I thought The Federation would let me put out an independent paper, and you backed him up," Lichtenstein reminded me.
Despite the prediction, The Federation committee and larger Federation board of directors agreed, in the face of considerable internal opposition, to establish an independent Journal, to advance a $660,000 loan for its operation, and to pay a subsidy to mail the paper to each of its 52,000 donors.
There had been two other finalists for the editor's job, Yehuda Lev, an outspoken, liberal journalist, and Marlene Adler Marks, a talented writer active in politics and feminist issues.
Lev and Marks were the first editor/reporters hired, soon joined by such early staffers as Tom Waldman, Sheldon Teitelbaum, Joe Domanick and Naomi Pfefferman.
The first slim issue of The Jewish Journal appeared on Feb. 28, 1986, with Volpert, whom the often-critical Lichtenstein praised for "a real standout job," as the first publisher.
Early issues won kudos for lively writing, outraged criticism by some Federation leaders and Jewish organizations, and a weak response from advertisers.
Within one year, the paper was hemorrhaging money, and some influential Federation leaders demanded that in the future they approve all major stories and editorials. Lichtenstein refused and, in a committee vote, carried the day by a narrow margin.
However, there was enough dissatisfaction with the editorial and business performance of The Journal that The Federation invited Charles Buerger, publisher of six successful East Coast Jewish papers, to buy out The Journal.
Buerger made a "low- ball" offer, then raised the stakes, but "to my astonishment," The Federation decided not to sell, Lichtenstein said.
Nevertheless, by June 1987, the paper had run through the $660,000 lent by The Federation and faced an early demise.
At his point, major Federation leaders, with Edward Brennglass, Stanley Hirsh and Osiah Goren in the lead, rode to the rescue, putting up their own money to repay the loan. The Journal lived to fight another day.
Brennglass took over as publisher for the next 11 years, the paper established a solid reputation and actually started to make a profit. After Brennglass' death, Hirsh, an influential businessman and Democratic heavyweight, became publisher in 1997.
However, by the year 2000, strong editorial and personality differences between publisher and editor-in-chief led to a parting point. Lichtenstein resigned and was succeeded by the managing editor, Rob Eshman.
Looking back on his 15-year tenure, Lichtenstein said he had "a wonderful time," which included reporting trips to Israel, Germany, Hungary and Croatia.
"I think we put out a pretty good paper, though not as good as it could have been," he reminisced. Part of the problem was a running conflict between himself and Federation leaders, which, he acknowledged, were partly his fault.
"I was really always an outsider, with one foot in the community, and one foot outside," he said. In addition, "I believe that a Jewish weekly belongs to the editor and staff, and it is the editor's job to make the staff realize that the paper belongs to them.
"That is hard for some organizational leaders to accept," Lichtenstein added in an understatement.
His major contributions, Lichtenstein said, were to publish as many diverse viewpoints as possible, recruit talented writers and columnists and insist, at all times, on good writing.
True to his initial inspiration, "I tried to put out a paper that was part of America and the world," he said.
"I've met some Jews, very wealthy and powerful Jews, who embrace Jewish victimhood, who told me that you can never trust a gentile," Lichtenstein said. "I don't champion that. I believe that the walls we build around ourselves are only in our minds."
The "victim" mindset is encouraged by many Jewish organizations, Lichtenstein said, "which wave the flag of anti-Semitism to keep their members loyal and to raise funds."
For Lichtenstein, there is a busy life after journalism. While he still writes, he has returned to his first profession as psychologist and is the director of mental health and social services for 26 clinics of the Aegis Institute, which specializes in the treatment of opiate addicts.
In addition, he has established a private practice, which includes family and marriage counseling.
He draws a distinction between core committed Jews, who go to synagogue and contribute to Jewish causes, and the "integrated" Jew on the periphery of the organized community.
"It is not the job of the American Jewish press to 'convert' the integrated Jew," he said. "Our job is to open a dialogue with him."