November 20, 2003
Thanksgiving’s Sukkot Roots
Did you know that Thanksgiving is really a Jewish holiday? Although Thanksgiving is not on the Jewish calendar, historians believe that Sukkot may have inspired America's favorite farewell to fall, often nicknamed "Turkey Day."
"The pilgrims based their customs on the Bible," said Gloria Kaufer Greene, author of the "New Jewish Holiday Cookbook" (Times Books, 1999). "They knew that Sukkot was an autumn harvest festival, and there is evidence that they fashioned the first Thanksgiving after the Jewish custom of celebrating the success of the year's crops."
Linda Burghardt, author of "Jewish Holiday Traditions" (Citadel Press, 2001), said, "Sukkot is considered a model for Thanksgiving. Both holidays revolve around showing gratitude for a bountiful harvest."
Today Thanksgiving is celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November, but President Franklin Roosevelt didn't propose this timing until 1939.
It was Abraham Lincoln who made Thanksgiving a national holiday. Roosevelt actually changed Lincoln's decree that Thanksgiving be observed on the last Thursday in November, which may fall on the fifth Thursday of the month.
The pilgrims' invited local Indians to the first Thanksgiving during the fall of 1621. Historians speculate that this celebration occurred somewhere between Sept. 21 and Nov. 9, but most likely in early October, around the time of Sukkot.
"Originally, Sukkot entailed a pilgrimage to Jerusalem," said Greene, who believes the two holidays share much in common.
The Puritan Christians who landed on American shores seeking religious freedom were called pilgrims, in deference to their journey from England. Their dream of finding a place where they'd be free to worship as they pleased is a recurrent theme in Jewish history.
After their pilgrimage to Jerusalem, the ancient Israelites lived for a week in temporary huts while giving thanks for a plentiful harvest. Likewise, during their first winter in Massachusetts, the pilgrims dwelled in makeshift huts, wigwams that the Indians helped them build.
While Sukkot remains a seven-day observance, the first Thanksgiving celebration continued for three days, a time frame more similar to the Jewish harvest festival than today's Thanksgiving dinner, which often begins in late afternoon and ends several hours later.
With its pumpkin pies and cranberry garlands, Thanksgiving mirrors many of Sukkot's customs and culinary themes.
Burghardt said she is amazed at how many of the same foods are connected to both holidays.
Piping hot casseroles brimming with vegetables and fruit grace the American and Jewish harvest tables, as do pastries that are filled with apples, nuts, pumpkins and squash. Stuffing one food inside another as a metaphor for abundance is the hallmark of Sukkot cuisine.
Yet there's nothing more opulent than the elaborate bread stuffings found inside Thanksgiving turkeys.
Greene enjoys transforming traditional Thanksgiving recipes into kosher cuisine.
"I like mixing new and old world themes," she said.
One of her favorite recipes is glazed turkey with fruit-nut stuffing. Bursting with so much produce, it's a one-dish harvest festival. Because the pilgrims and Indians shared roasted corn during the first Thanksgiving, Greene's double-corn bread is a fitting choice. It is soft and moist, almost like a kugel.
Harvest-time cranberry relish is always a big hit at Greene's house.
"Several years ago, I invited a family of Russian Jewish immigrants to celebrate their first Thanksgiving. While they adored traditional American foods, they were especially fascinated with the taste and bright color of cranberries."
But since the two holidays are so close in time, is there any reason for American Jews who celebrate Sukkot to pay homage to a second harvest festival six weeks later?
"Participating in Thanksgiving is how we feel American," said Greene, a former food columnist for the Baltimore Jewish Times, who used to submit a Thanksgiving story every year.
She agrees with Burghardt that Thanksgiving is a lovely experience. It's an easy holiday to include friends and neighbors of other faiths.
"While Thanksgiving is not technically a Jewish holiday, it's not a Christian one either," Burghardt said. "It's a great equalizer with a multicultural theme."
Although Burghardt believes that Thanksgiving, with its chocolate turkeys and pilgrims, lacks Sukkot's depth, Greene feels there's something spiritual about the whole country partaking in a communal meal, even though menus and customs vary from home to home. At her table, she asks guest to share one thing for which they're grateful.
"Like Sukkot, at Thanksgiving you're supposed to invite people to share abundance with your family," Burghardt said. "You can't serve too much food. Could there be anything more Jewish than that?"
Glazed Turkey With Fruit-Nut Stuffing
2 tablespoons canola oil
1 large onion, finely chopped
2 celery stalks, diced
1/2 cup orange juice
1/4 cup sugar
1 1/2 cups cranberries
12 pitted prunes, coarsely chopped
6 dried apricots, coarsely chopped
1 cup raisins
3 medium apples, cored and diced
1 1/2 cups chopped nuts
1/2 cup finely chopped parsley
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon ground cloves
1/8 teaspoon ground ginger
Salt and pepper to taste
2 large eggs, lightly beaten
1. In a medium-sized saucepan sauté the onion and celery in oil over medium-high heat, stirring until tender but not browned. Transfer to a large bowl. Set aside.
2. In the same (unwashed) pan, combine orange juice and sugar, bringing mixture to a boil over medium-high heat. Stir in cranberries and bring to a boil. Lower the heat and simmer cranberries, stirring occasionally for about 10 minutes, or until berry skins pop.
3. Mix in prunes, apricots and raisins. Remove from heat. Transfer mixture to bowl containing onion and celery. Cool to room temperature. Add remaining stuffing ingredients and mix well.
1 12-14 pound turkey, completely defrosted in refrigerator
1. Clean turkey well and discard giblets. Rub skin with canola oil.
2. Fill the body and neck cavities of the turkey with stuffing, allowing room for expansion. Tuck the legs under the band of skin or tie legs together with heavy cord. Skewer or sew neck skin closed against the body. Place turkey, breast up, on a rack in a shallow roasting pan. Roast in a preheated 325 F oven for about three hours.
Yield: 10 servings
Double Corn Bread
1 cup yellow cornmeal
1 cup all-purpose flour
3 tablespoons sugar
4 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 large eggs
1/3 cup canola oil
1 (about 15-ounce) can cream-style corn, including liquid.
(Note: Because cream-style corn does not contain dairy products, it is pareve.)
1. Preheat oven to 400 F. Coat an 8-inch square baking pan with no-stick spray.
2. In a medium bowl, combine cornmeal, flour, sugar, baking powder and salt. Make a well in the center, and add eggs, oil and canned corn. Beat wet ingredients with a fork to combine them, then incorporate dry ingredients. Stir only until all ingredients are completely moistened and combined.
3. Spoon mixture into prepared pan. Bake for 20-25 minutes, or until knife inserted in center comes out clean. Cut into 16 squares and serve directly from the pan.
Harvest-Time Cranberry Relish
1 medium-sized navel orange
1 12-ounce package fresh cranberries, sorted, rinsed and drained
1 medium-sized apple, cored and cut into eighths
1 medium-sized pear, cored and cut into eighths
1/4 cup walnut pieces
1/4 cup dark raisins
1/2 cup dark brown sugar
2 tablespoons granulated sugar
1 tablespoons lemon juice
1. Use a sharp knife to remove the colored part of the orange rind. Set aside. Remove and discard the white pith. Cut orange pulp into chunks.
2. Put orange rind and pulp into food processor fitted with the steel blade with the remaining relish ingredients. Pulse the mixture until ingredients are finely chopped but not smoothly pureed.
3. Chill relish covered for several hours, stirring occasionally until the sugar completely dissolves and flavors blend.
Yield: about 3 1/2 cups
From "The New Jewish Holiday Cookbook," by Gloria Kaufer Greene.
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