In recent weeks, many of us "Diaspora Jews" kept ourselves neck-deep in news from the Middle East: jumping out of bed to check the front page, keeping the television on all night, refreshing Web sites for the latest headlines. Of course, our routine paled in comparison to many Israelis, who were dashing into bomb shelters, being forced from their homes, arranging funerals. Still, it was a change, part of our anxiety-propelled, bottomless need for information.
But information does not necessarily breed understanding. This is especially true for us who are here and not there, and the distance is a complicating factor. Even those who have planted themselves firmly on one side or another of the political spectrum have been struck by new, different, often uncomfortable thoughts. ("How can I accept the killing of innocent Lebanese civilians, even by Israel?" one asks, while another wonders whether he should up the ante of his support by joining the Israeli army.) Behind these questions is the desire to get a better hold on the exact contours of one's individual relationship to the State of Israel -- not necessarily by figuring out one's politics as much as by plumbing one's emotional connection.
The answers to these questions cannot be found on CNN (thankfully). For this, we might be more successfully aided by fiction. One should read Israeli writers, of course -- Agnon, Amichai, A.B. Yehoshua, Aharon Appelfeld, Orly Castel-Bloom, Etgar Keret. But the more appropriate template may come from fellow Americans, writers who, by exploring the Diaspora Jew's relationship to Israel, have gone down this road before.
One of the best of these books is "The Counterlife," Philip Roth's 1986 masterpiece. Less a linear tale than five riffs revolving around the same set of characters, the book acts as a kind of narrative kaleidoscope on Jewish identity; with each slight shift of perspective, a whole new picture emerges (think "Sliding Doors," but smarter). The structure is designed to put the author's famed alter ego, Nathan Zuckerman, face to face with characters who challenge his identity as a Jew -- vis-?-vis signature Roth topics (sex, family, psychoanalysis, sex, assimilation, sex) as well as broader ones: the Holocaust, anti-Semitism and, most evocatively here, Israel. Nathan's good, moderate, American values are challenged -- from his resistance to religious ritual and distaste for the political right ("We do not wish to crush the Arab," a settler leader explains, "we simply will not allow him to crush us"), to his subtle romanticization of Israeli life.
"Whenever I meet you American-Jewish intellectuals," says his friend Shuki, a wearied Israeli journalist, "with your non-Jewish wives and your good Jewish brains, well-bred, smooth, soft-spoken men, educated men who know how to order in a good restaurant, and to appreciate a good wine, and to listen courteously to another point of view, I think exactly that: We are the excitable, ghettoized, jittery little Jews of the Diaspora, and you are the Jews with all the confidence and cultivation that comes of feeling at home where you are."
The book is not exclusively about Israel, but those were the sections that moved me. And they are what I've found myself rereading over the past weeks.
"The Counterlife" is only one of many, many books about Israel by Americans -- from "Yehuda" (1931) by Meyer Levin to "Exodus" (1958) by Leon Uris to "Light Years" (2005) by Tamar Stein (see sidebar). Perhaps it is this kind of reading that can begin to provoke understanding of the conflict a continent away. l
To push fiction as a complement to the newspaper, the television and the Internet in our quest for information and understanding about Israel, we asked readers to help us create a list of the best novels and short stories about Israel written by Diaspora authors:
- "Yehuda" by Meyer Levin: Based on the author's own experiences, this book is the first known novel depicting life set on a kibbutz in then-Palestine of 1931 (1931).
- "Exodus" by Leon Uris: A detailed account of the transition from the ill-treatment of Jews in Europe to the founding of Israel sets up a fictional background for political arguments on issues of the 19th and 20th centuries (1958).
- "A Weave of Women" by E.M. Broner: A group of very different women band together to save a shelter for wayward Jewish girls (and learn a lesson or two in politics, when they change its official name to "Home for Jewish Future Homemakers"). "Life's contradictions live throughout this novel," wrote one reviewer (1978).
- "Preparing for Sabbath" by Nessa Rapoport: A young woman's spiritual quest, set in Jerusalem (1981).
- "The Hope" by Herman Wouk: An epic novel about Israel's fight for statehood. The author delves into the personal lives of the dramatis personae, including Golda Meir, Moshe Dayan and Anwar Sadat (1993).
- "Operation Shylock: A Confession" by Philip Roth: An impostor, calling himself "Philip Roth," causes a furor in Israel by advocating "Diasporism," the polar opposite of Zionism, encouraging Israelis to return to Eastern Europe (1993).
- "The Jewish War" by Tova Reich: A radically religious, polygamous man, Jerry Goldberg transforms from a mere social worker in the Bronx to a terrorist leader of a group of American Jews in Israel who secede a portion of the West Bank to form their own nation in this satire (1995).
- "From a Sealed Room" by Rachel Kadish: The lives of a young woman from New York, a Holocaust survivor and an Israeli housewife intersect (1998).
- "Damascus Gate" by Robert Stone: A journalist in Jerusalem, reared both Jewish and Christian, feels devoid of a true sense of identity, despite the fact that he is surrounded by some of the most devoutly religious peoples in the world. "The characters in 'Damascus Gate' may be 'God-struck,'" wrote Michiko Kakutani in The New York Times, "they may dream insistently of a better world, but like so many Stone characters, they end up captives of history and their own very human illusions" (1998).
- "For the Relief of Unbearable Urges" by Nathan Englander: "A debut collection of nine stories that explore the condition of being Jewish with an often hallucinatory, epigrammatic eloquence that is, as advertised, reminiscent of the fiction of Isaac Singer, Saul Bellow, and especially Bernard Malamud," noted Kirkus (1999).
- "The Family Orchard" by Eve Nomi: Spanning six generations, this epic follows the lives of one family grounded in Jerusalem (2000).
- "House of Guilt" by Robert Rosenberg: Police detective Avram Cohen goes on a hunt to find a tycoon's wayward son, with his search leading him right into the heart of the West Bank (2000).
- "Strange Fire" by Melvin Bukiet: A dark comedy about a speechwriter for the Israeli prime minister (2001).
- "Crimes of the City" by Robert Rosenberg: Police detective Avram Cohen must track down the killer of two nuns in Jerusalem while contending with a host of religious and political tensions (2001).
- "The Ascent of Eli Israel" by Jon Papernick: In seven modern-day stories, the scene is established in Israel, and the plots are mostly driven to underscore hypocrisy, touching on cultural tensions and war (2002).
- "Quiet Street" by Zelda Popkin and Jeremy A. Popkin: A woman living in the suburbs of Jerusalem must come to terms with reality as she watches her 18-year-old daughter take on the role of soldier instead of farmer (2002).
- "Seven Blessings" by Ruchama King: Set in an Orthodox community in Jerusalem. King has been described by writer Wendy Shalit as "a writer who writes about a devout lifestyle that she actually lives" (2003).
- "The Dialogues of Time and Entropy" by Aryeh Lev Stollman: "An expert weaver, Stollman brings together themes of religion, science, and love into an emotional whole," noted Kirkus (2003).
- "Welcome to Heavenly Heights" by Risa Miller: A cohort of Jews from the United States ventures to the West Bank to build a new community, but their settlement becomes a primary target of violence (2003).
- "The Butcher's Theater" by Jonathan Kellerman: A chief inspector of police who is also a Yemenite Jew begins work on a case involving the death of an Arab woman. After a second killing occurs, the inspector bears witness as Jewish-Arab conflicts ensue (2003).
- "Ten Thousand Lovers" by Edeet Ravel: A novel, set in the 1970s, about the relationship between a Canadian émigré and an army interrogator. "The tragedy here is both anticipated and inevitable," said Booklist, "but the textured personal story rises above its political context like a melody soaring beyond the steady rhythm pulsing below it" (2003).
- "An Hour in Paradise" by Joan Leegant: This collection of 10 short stories covers a breadth of characters -- from the secular to Orthodox, young to old -- through whom Leegant poses questions about faith, love and change (2003).
- "The Place Will Comfort You" by Naama Goldstein: In this collection of short stories, American Jews make aliyah and Israelis immigrate to America (2004).
- "Faith for Beginners" by Aaron Hamburger: An American Jewish family teeters on the edge of collapse. In a last resort, they travel to Israel on a package tour with a mission to reinvigorate their spirituality (2005).
- "The Task of This Translator" by Todd Hasak-Lowy: According to Publisher's Weekly, "Hasak-Lowy artfully reveals layers of personal and national identity," including one story about an Israeli ex-journalist working in the cafe at Yad Vashem who clashes with an American businessman over a stale pastry (2005).
- "The Covenant" by Naomi Ragen: Set in 2002, a pregnant Israeli woman, her husband and their child are abducted by Hamas (2004).
- "Light Years" by Tammar Stein: A 20-year-old woman leaves Israel for college in the United States after her boyfriend is killed by a suicide bomber in a Tel Aviv restaurant (2005).
-- Compiled by Elisha Sauers
Article reprinted courtesy The Forward