April 6, 2000
Condemning the Vote
Patrilineal descent more divisive than Reform's vote on gay unions
That's how Orthodox and Conservative rabbis are viewing the Reform movement's recent decision last week to affirm the right of its rabbis to officiate at gay and lesbian commitment ceremonies.
But even though the leaders of Judaism's more traditional movements say the Reform rabbis' decision is less divisive than the 1984 move on patrilineal descent, Orthodox leaders are harshly condemning the vote.
The criticism of Conservative leaders is more subdued.
Also, those active in promoting Reform Judaism in Israel insist that because the resolution recognizes the diversity of views on same-sex unions and does not use the words "marriage" or "wedding," it will not pose a serious obstacle to attracting Israelis to the movement. The Israeli Reform movement has generally taken a more cautious approach to controversial issues because it does not want to give the Orthodox establishment ammunition.
Not surprisingly, leaders in the Reconstructionist movement -- which recognizes patrilineal descent and in 1993 supported same-sex commitment ceremonies -- backed the Reform decision.
Other movements, though, predict it will undermine Jewish unity.
While the Reform resolution means the movement will now develop and circulate ketubot -- or Jewish marriage contracts -- and liturgy for same-sex ceremonies to its 1,700 rabbis, the resolution does not require rabbis to officiate at same-sex unions. Many Reform rabbis had officiated at same-sex ceremonies even before the resolution was passed.
Rabbi Richard Hirsh, executive director of the 200-member Reconstructionist Rabbinical Association, speculated that the resolution's passage will encourage Reform rabbis who do not yet officiate at same-sex unions to consider doing so. He said his movement's 1993 resolution "started what became a significant shift in Reconstructionist rabbis."
Public discussion of the issue "made it less possible for individual rabbis to avoid the issue," said Hirsh, who began officiating at gay and lesbian ceremonies after 1993.
"Having support of the rabbinic group makes it easier for you to make a stand in your own congregation," he said.
The executive vice president of the Rabbinical Assembly, which represents 1,500 Conservative rabbis, said that while his movement supports civil rights for gays, it does not approve of its rabbis officiating at same-sex ceremonies.
Rabbi Joel Meyers acknowledged that despite this position, some Conservative rabbis officiate at same-sex ceremonies and -- unlike Conservative rabbis who officiate at intermarriages -- they are allowed to remain in the Rabbinical Assembly.
Meyers does not expect Reform's move to strain Conservative-Reform relations, and he predicted it would have less of an impact than the patrilineal descent issue, which he said "goes to the heart of defining who's Jewish and who's not and that's a more serious question."
The Rabbinical Council of America, the organization representing 1,100 Orthodox rabbis, issued a statement that said, "Conferring legitimacy upon relationships which our Torah and tradition specifically prohibit is beyond the pale of acceptable Jewish teaching and practice."
"It's another step of fragmentation and disunification of the Jewish community," said Rabbi Steven Dworken, the RCA's executive vice president. "First they did it with patrilineal descent, and now this."
Rabbi Avi Shafran, spokesman for the fervently Orthodox Agudath Israel of America, was even more outspoken in his criticism, saying it should "convince all Jews that anything goes in Reform leadership.
"Even the prohibition against incest could go," he said.
But Shafran did say that unlike the patrilineal descent issue, the new resolution would not "split the Jewish people in two."
Meanwhile, Reform and Conservative leaders say they will continue to work together, despite their differences on the same-sex issue.
Rabbi Ammiel Hirsch, executive director of the Association of Reform Zionists of America, said he supported the resolution and was particularly happy about its compromise language.
"I imagine there'll be some attacks from various quarters, mostly Orthodox, and I think it will be used from time to time by those who have an ax to grind against us," he said.
However, he noted that he "could care less what the ultra-Orthodox say about us," and is far more concerned about Reform's image among its "target audience -- all those people between Orthodox and nothing."
The leader of Israel's Conservative counterpart, Rabbi Ehud Bandel, said he does not agree with the resolution, which he thinks will undermine both movements' efforts in Israel, but said it will not affect his willingness to work with the Reform movement in efforts to gain recognition for non-Orthodox streams of Judaism.
"It will make our position hard -- we're always associated with Reform, and Israelis don't always differentiate between Masorti and Reform. But I think it will create more understanding to the fact that these are distinct movements.''
Yolanda Potasinski, left, and her partner under the chuppah. Rabbi Sharon Kleinbaum officiated at the 1997 commitment ceremony.
A Step Forward
Gay Jews say Reform vote is
a step toward acceptance.
By Julie Wiener, Jewish Telegraphic Agency
Steven Fruh, 56, grew up thinking homosexuality and religion were incompatible.
So, when he realized he was gay, he abandoned Judaism. But 11 years ago when he discovered Congregation Beth Simchat Torah, it was a "revelation" to him that one could be "observant and gay."
The feeling of acceptance Fruh found upon discovering the world's oldest and largest gay synagogue was experienced by other gay Jews last week when Reform rabbis overwhelmingly approved a resolution affirming that "the relationship of a Jewish, same gender couple is worthy of affirmation through appropriate Jewish ritual."
In Los Angeles, the only city in the world with two synagogues serving primarily gay, lesbian, and bisexual Jews, Rabbi Lisa Edwards of Beth Chayim Chadashim (BCC) lauded the Reform movement for "taking a leading role" in the inclusion of gay and lesbian Jews. Some date Reform's historic path toward the recent vote to 1972, when it formally accepted BCC as a member in the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
Rabbi Denise Eger of Congregation Kol Ami in West Hollywood credited the Women's Reform Network, the national organization of Reform women rabbis, with pushing the issue of gay marriage before the plenum. "We feel the vote of the Reform rabbis is in keeping with the views of the liberal Jews of California," she said.
Back at Manhattan's Congregation Beth Simchat Torah -- where the rabbis already officiate at gay and lesbian weddings -- the bimah features two rainbow-colored gay liberation flags alongside the United States and Israeli flags. During a recent Hebrew class, Fruh and his classmates said the Central Conference of American Rabbis' resolution was an important step toward greater acceptance for gays and lesbians.
"It's important from a symbolic point of view," said Fruh, who was seated next to his partner, Paul Marsolini. "The largest Jewish organization has said our relationships have just as much validity" as the relationships of heterosexual couples, he said.
The resolution, which does not use the words "marriage" or "wedding" and which was modified shortly before the vote to emphasize that not all Reform rabbis agree on same-sex unions, does not make as strong a statement as the Beth Simchat Torah students would have liked. Rachel Gartner, a rabbinical student at the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, who was teaching the Hebrew class that night. "I would've liked to see kiddushin," she said, referring to the Hebrew word for marriage. "But as a general broad statement, it's thrilling."
Modifications or not, Marsolini said the resolution is still a "tremendous step forward."
Another student, Marsha Cohen, who introduced herself as the "straight mother of a gay son," said she was excited about the resolution, which she called "a step."
"It's not perfect, but it's pretty good, and the more people get used to it, the better," she said.
"Why shouldn't my one son have the same rights and privileges as the other son?" Cohen added.
Class members said they hope the resolution would influence other religious movements.
"May the Conservative movement be next!" Fruh exclaimed.