Stepping up to aid victims of Hurricane Katrina, Jewish day schools opened their doors to evacuees, families welcomed strangers into their homes, Jewish rescue squads searched through the storm's wreckage and Jewish organizations raised millions of dollars for those whose lives were turned topsy-turvy by the deadly storm.
Houston has quickly become a major haven for victims who have been left, for the moment at least, without homes. The Jewish Federation of Greater Houston quickly jumped into action to aid the beleaguered evacuees, Jew and non-Jew alike.
"We have mobilized our community around all the areas that seem to be current and potential needs," said Lee Wunsch, the federation's CEO. "There's a lot of activity. People are very generous with their time. Our phones have not stopped ringing."
Approximately 15,000 Louisiana evacuees were being housed in the Astrodome, the city's covered sports stadium, after conditions in the New Orleans Superdome grew unbearable. Houston is hosting tens of thousands of evacuees, including an estimated 5,000 Jews.
The federation has joined an interfaith coalition taking responsibility for feeding the refugees in the Astrodome for the next 30 days, a service that the federal government is not providing, Wunsch told JTA. The effort will require 700 to 800 volunteers each day and is expected to cost between $7 million and $8 million.
"We're trying to raise the money to make a sizable contribution to that," Wunsch said.
In the first 24 hours when the fund was opened last week, the federation raised about $75,000 in online donations. Donations are coming in so quickly that by the beginning of this week, the federation had decided to hold off calculating the total until a quieter time.
The Baltimore-based Harry and Jeanette Weinberg Foundation Inc. announced it would be donating $1 million to help relieve survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Funds will be allocated as $500,000 grants to both United Jewish Communities (UJC) and Catholic Charities USA.
On Tuesday, UJC said it had raised nearly $4 million, including the Weinberg Foundation grant. The UJC also said that the local federations directly affected by the hurricane were overwhelmed and had asked that those with questions or seeking to make donations contact the UJC directly.
Meanwhile, hundreds of Jews may be among those still trapped in water-inundated homes or missing in the Gulf region, said Rabbi Zalman Shmotkin, Chabad-Lubavitch's spokesman based in New York.
Chabad rescue teams, comprised largely of New York-based medics and others with relevant expertise, have rescued 32 Jews from their houses over the last several days, he said. The teams are operating both on foot and in boats.
Some elderly Jews resisted leaving their homes, as did one woman who was reluctant to leave her pets behind to fend for themselves. The teams were able to convince some victims to evacuate their homes; others stayed put.
The Hurricane Relief section of Chabad's Web site asks anyone who knows of people still missing or trapped to provide details through the site (www.chabad.org.).
As of Tuesday, the official death toll in New Orleans was 71, and in Mississippi it was 161. However, those figures were expected to climb into the thousands as floodwaters begin to recede, revealing the true toll of those lost.
Hunger and fear of disease in affected areas engendered anger and disbelief as the federal government's handling of the crisis garnered sharp criticism. President Bush toured the battered region Monday, comforting victims and vowing to do what is necessary to aid them. In a visit to the area last week, Bush said relief efforts to that point were "not acceptable."
Jewish organizations in the hard-hit region and beyond pitched in to help those whose lives have been disrupted by Katrina.
Israeli universities are opening their doors to college students whose schools have been shut down by the storm. Tulane University in New Orleans announced that it will not hold classes for the fall semester. Loyola University is also closed though January, and Dillard University is examining its options for the immediate future. The two schools are also in New Orleans.
The Jewish Agency for Israel, MASA -- the Gateway to Long-Term Israel Programs and Hillel: The Foundation for Jewish Campus Life have forged a coalition of the five major Israeli universities with study-abroad programs to allow displaced students -- Jews and non-Jews -- to quickly continue their studies.
Meanwhile, Jewish day school networks across the United States and across the denominational spectrum are working to absorb Jewish students and their families, offering everything from free tuition and school supplies to employment opportunities for parents and living accommodations.
"Jewish day schools across the streams walk the walk and talk the talk," said Marc Kramer, executive director of RAVSAK: The Jewish Community Day School Network.
The UJC and local federations throughout the United States and Canada have also established funds to aid those in need. Numerous other Jewish organizations, both national and local, are also offering help -- raising money, coordinating housing and looking into specific medical and religious needs of refugees in their communities.
The United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism has composed a special prayer for the victims.
"In the path of Katrina's destruction, let the good in humanity rise to the top of the flood," it reads, in part. "Give us strength to console those who have lost family, friends and neighbors. Give us the courage to provide hope to those who despair. Provide us with the guidance to heal those who ail, both in body and in spirit."
At Beth Am Israel, a Conservative congregation in Penn Valley, Pa., congregants are preparing backpacks full of school supplies for young Katrina evacuees who will shortly be enrolling in the Houston public school system.
Each school bag is being filled with grade-appropriate supplies in accordance with Houston school guidelines -- younger students may get crayons and markers while older pupils will receive items like graph paper and protractors.
"In terms of rallying the community, it was really wonderful," said Gari Julius Weilbacher, who is coordinating the synagogue's effort. "It's giving people something to do besides writing really, really vital checks."
Weilbacher said that she expects more than 150 backpacks to come in, and some congregants are writing checks to pay for postage, while others are donating boxes in which to pack the bags for shipment.
The Houston federation is working feverishly to meet Jewish evacuees' needs.
A number of New Orleans families are now living with families in Houston, Wunsch said, and local day schools are allowing students from New Orleans to enroll for free. The Maimonides Society, a group for local Jewish doctors, has been mobilized to help those evacuees with medical concerns, and several local rabbis are coordinating an effort to ensure that their Jewish religious needs are met.
Synagogues in the Houston area are providing free Shabbat meals and are expected to open their doors to evacuee families, both in the immediate future and during the High Holidays.
At Congregation Beth Yeshurun in Houston, members are making room in their homes for those with no place to go and have prepared welcome packages of toiletries, snacks and beverages. The synagogue was also arranging kosher meals for those who want them, and sent about 250 volunteers to the Astrodome this week.
The community response has been swift and overwhelming, say those involved in coordinating area relief efforts.
"I'm 150 e-mails behind," said Adam Bronstone, who fled New Orleans on Aug. 27 and has since been working at the Houston federation office and living with a friend. "There's one guy here answering four phones at a time."
The situation, Bronstone said, is "crazy, it's surreal, it's loving, its warm. It's the worst of times -- but it's also the best of times."
Hurricane damage in the region was staggering. The full extent of damage to sites of Jewish concern remained uncertain. West Esplanade Avenue in Metarie, La., is home to about five Jewish institutions.
Rabbi Yossie Nemes, who rode out the storm at his home there with his family and four others seeking refuge, saw downed trees, power outages, some damage to roofs and up to two feet of water.
Those with knowledge of New Orleans geography said that based on news reports about damage to particular neighborhoods, they suspected that some other buildings, including a Jewish museum, were badly damaged or destroyed.
As Nemes, his wife, seven children and four house guests sat on the second floor of his home -- winds howling outside, water rising on the bottom level, rain pelting the sturdy brick home's protective hurricane shutters -- they prayed and played board games.
"We weren't worried for our lives," he recalled on Tuesday from Chabad's offices in New York, where he had arrived by car in the morning after three days in Memphis. "But it was very, very nerve-wracking. We were hoping and praying for the storm to end."
Things grew more tense, he said, when some of the city's levees broke. At that point, Nemes had no idea how his neighborhood would fare. In the end, the power went out and his house took in about two feet of water -- but everyone got out safely.
"All the appliances and furniture are damaged," he said. "It's dirty, bacteria-filled water. There's extensive damage, but I don't believe it'll be condemned."
In addition to those who landed in Houston, Jews also ended up in Birmingham, Ala.; Nashville; Atlanta; Austin, Texas; Dallas; cities in Florida; and elsewhere.
Many also fled to Memphis. The Orthodox Union (OU) dispatched Rabbi Chaim Neiditch on a fact-finding mission to Tennessee.
"They're living Jewish lives as best as they can," said Neiditch, the director of the southern region of the OU's National Conference of Synagogue Youth. They are attending prayer services and eating kosher food, he said, but there is a real fear that the community, stretched to its limits by the influx of evacuees, will run out of kosher food.
"There is a sense of despair and worse -- every single possession is lost, jobs gone," he said. "They are separated from family and friends. They have no means of communicating with each other. It is beyond comprehension what is going on."