September 15, 2005
Burton’s ‘Corpse’ Has Jewish Bones
Once upon a time, a bridegroom jokingly recited his marriage vows over a skeletal finger protruding from the earth. After placing his ring on the bone, his mirth turned to horror when a grasping hand burst forth, followed by a corpse in a tattered shroud, her dead eyes staring as she proclaimed, "My husband!"
This chilling Jewish folk tale hails from a cycle of stories about the great 16th-century mystic, Rabbi Isaac Luria of Safed, in what is now northern Israel, said Howard Schwartz, a top Jewish folklorist and professor at the University of Missouri-St. Louis.
It also apparently inspired Tim Burton's charmingly ghoulish animated film, "Corpse Bride." Yes, the film features a bridegroom who accidentally weds a cadaver. But the feature eschews the folk tale's grotesquerie for romanticized gloom and Halloweeny fun -- a trademark of Burton fare such as "Edward Scissorhands" and "The Nightmare Before Christmas." "Corpse Bride" is among more than a dozen fantasy films slated to open this year, including Peter Jackson's "King Kong," which some analysts attribute to the yen for escapist cinema during wartime.
"Bride" revolves around a shy, bumbling groom, Victor (voiced by Johnny Depp), who is practicing the wedding ceremony when he impulsively slides his ring on what he assumes is a stick. The corpse who emerges (voiced by Burton's real-life fiancée Helena Bonham Carter) is not a hideously disintegrating cadaver, but a lovely, if unearthly heroine.
"When she gently takes off her veil and we see her for the first time, it becomes a glamour-girl shot," cinematographer Pete Kozachik said.
The cadaver claims her husband, but does not emit bloodcurdling shrieks or insist upon the consummation of the marriage, like her folk-tale counterpart. Her mild flaws include a tendency toward petulance and an understandable proclivity for dropping a limb or having her eyeball pop out. On these occasions, a maggot pal pops out of her exposed eye socket. This damsel-past-distress whisks Victor off to the Land of the Dead, a lively place where skeletons party, forcing Victor to leave his living fiancée (voiced by Emily Watson) bereft.
So why did Burton -- who is known to dress like a mortician -- brighten the Jewish tale?
"We wanted to make a version that wasn't so disturbing that you couldn't put it in a family movie," said co-screenwriter John August, who also wrote Burton's "Big Fish" and "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory."
"The parts that are 'scary' are really parodies of classic horror-film moments, such as when our bride's detached hand crawls after Victor." The characters are non-Jewish, he added, "because Tim gravitates toward universal, fairy-tale qualities in his films."
Burton got the idea for the movie when his late executive producer, Joe Ranft, brought him excerpts from the 16th-century legend.
"It seemed right for this particular type of [stop-motion] animation," Burton said in an interview with studio publicists. "It's like casting -- you want to marry the medium with the material."
The director saw elements in the tale that he could transform to match his love of protagonists who seem bizarre but who are actually tragic and isolated. In interviews, Burton has traced this preoccupation to his lonely childhood as an eccentric, artistic boy growing up in Burbank. No wonder his characters have included the titular disfigured innocent in "Edward Scissorhands," the reclusive Willy Wonka in "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory" and now the corpse bride.
"On the surface, she appears to be a monster but in fact she is kind and sweet and misunderstood," screenwriter August said.
The Jewish folk obsession with the macabre -- encompassing tales such as the corpse bride -- comes from strikingly different cultural sensibilities than Burton's obsessions, said Rabbi Pinchas Giller, professor of Jewish thought at the University of Judaism.
"Over the centuries, the Jews were very helpless and very beset by outside forces," Giller said. "Bad luck could always come about, and it was a real act of Providence that bore a couple to the wedding canopy."
Schwartz, author of "Tree of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism" (Oxford University Press, 2004), retells the corpse tale in his 1987 book, "Lilith's Cave: Jewish Tales of the Supernatural" (Oxford University Press), in a story titled, "The Finger." His source was the 17th-century volume, "Shivhei ha-Ari," which collected earlier stories about the alleged feats of the real Rabbi Luria. The stories are hagiographic legends -- tales about a master that show his great powers. In the corpse-bride narrative, Rabbi Luria confronts the cadaver, who accepts his authority. He is a member of the rabbinic court (the beit din) that eventually rules against the corpse, stating that she is not married because the dead have no claim upon the living, among other reasons.
The real Luria lived in the 16th century, but the origin of tales about nuptials with supernatural entities is far earlier. Schwartz traces them to a biblical commentary that suggests Adam had an insubordinate first wife, Lilith, who became a seductive demon. Later variations on this storyline include "the forced or accidental marriage of a man to a demon; an attempt to be free of unwanted vows and a decision reached by a rabbinical court," Schwartz wrote in "Lilith's Cave." The unearthly characters "perhaps represent the fear of marriage to gentiles and hybrid offspring," he said.Like the supernatural fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm (also the subject of a new movie), the corpse bride of folk tradition also serves as a cautionary tale, warning about the consequences of bad behavior.
"It tells us, 'Be careful, don't ever take an oath in vain. Don't take it lightly,'" said Peninnah Schram, a professional Jewish storyteller and associate professor of speech and drama at Stern College in New York.
In "The Finger," the wayward bridegroom gets lucky. After the rabbis rule against the validity of the corpse's marriage to the careless suitor, the would-be bride -- after emitting one last shriek -- collapses in a pile of bones and dies, this time for keeps.
The movie has a more Hollywood kind of ending, with that Tim Burton twist.
"Tim's characters tend to wear darker colors and some, like the corpse bride, are no longer living, but they have a pluck and a spirit that makes you fall in love with them," August said.
"Corpse Bride" opens Friday in theaters.